Conference Program

Day 2: Wednesday, March 22

Room: New York 1 Improvements in Tire Testing and Simulation
09:00 - 17:30


Dr Günter Leister
Tire Wheel Mobility Solutions

ETRTO design for a representative tire abrasion rate on-vehicle test

Dr Benjamin Oelze
Department Manager
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH/(ETRTO)
Frederic Biesse
Fellow for Tire Physics and Modelization
To regulate tire wear in terms of abrasion rate (mg/km/ton vehicle) an end consumer-representative and reproducible test method is required. Experienced accelerations are a suitable descriptor for driving conditions concerning tire wear. To determine representative accelerations for typical usage, over 3,500 vehicles in Europe have been monitored. For reproducibility reasons, the overall traffic flow on chosen tracks on public roads has to be considered. Parameters for track layout in general should be universal so that multiple tracks at different locations can be set up. Test conditions are defined in terms of ambient temperatures, driving style, vehicle settings, etc.

Tire rolling resistance: lab versus real world

Stefan Koeppen
Principal Engineer
Challenging energy efficiency requirements, the need to reduce emissions and the transition to EVs all increase the relevance of tires in the vehicle energy economy. The amount of energy dissipated by tires in real-world applications depends on the operating conditions and vehicle and mission profile. Laboratory rolling resistance (RR) tests according to ISO or SAE procedures do not consider several of these factors. This presentation covers the effects of ambient temperature on tire RR, a comparison of lab and on-road RR measurements, examples of RR in transient operating conditions and how intelligent tires can support analyzing these parameters.

Getting a quick read on rubber thermal degradation

Radek Stocek
General Manager
PRL Polymer Research Lab
Czech Republic
Traditional laboratory tests to determine the thermal aging of rubber used for tires consist of performing standard tests after aging, and the aging process is typically carried out over a period of hours to months, which is very time-consuming. Therefore, this study proposes a new way of quantifying the thermal degradation process that directly identifies the embrittlement or softening/hardening of rubber which are consequences of aging phenomena. A physical compliance parameter will be introduced to quantify the susceptibility of rubber to cracking due to thermal aging, where the whole analysis only takes up to two hours.

Tire abrasion measurement vehicle test method

Ricard Anadon
Senior Product Manager, Tyre and Wheel Homologation and Certification
Applus+ Idiada
Tire wear is caused by the friction process between tires and the road surface. This is unintentionally releasing microplastics to the environment. The first step to monitor and limit those particle emissions is to develop and agree on a test procedure to measure the tire abrasion rate. This presentation concerns a proposal for an accelerated vehicle test method in the proving ground environment.

Coffee and Networking Break

Virtual FTire submissions at Hankook

Yaswanth Siramdasu
Lead Engineer
Hankook Tire - America Technical Center
With OEMs mandating the submission of virtual models, tire suppliers are busy molding and reshaping virtual methods according to their best ideals and past simulation experiences. At Hankook, we took the path of developing simplified FE techniques for the direct estimation of FTire 'core' parameters, thus circumventing most of the computationally expensive and complex FE (cleat) simulations. Using these FE techniques, for the past year, virtual FTire models have been submitted to multiple OEMs. In this presentation, the accuracy of FE techniques to predict the cleat response is evaluated, with examples from various FTire models delivered to OEMs and from internal evaluations.

Latest developments in tires and simulation at Jaguar Land Rover

Jan Prins
Technical Specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
Dr Martin Shaw
Subject Matter Expert, Wheels & Tyres CAE
Jaguar Land Rover
The presentation will cover the latest developments in tire development and simulation at Jaguar Land Rover, and how tire data and simulation is used to ensure tires are sized to meet the company’s targets and customers’ expectations.

Region-of-operation based weighting factors for the Magic Formula parametrization

Girish Radhakrishnan
Principle Vehicle Dynamics R&D Engineer
In this research, it is proposed that relevant regions of operation of the tire be given higher priority while parametrizing the Pacejka model. This is done by creating complex weighting functions that selectively assign weightage to, for example, higher loads and positive slip angle regions. A Magic Formula 6.1 is then parametrized using historical tire data from racing tires with and without the complex weighting function. The two different tire models are used in a vehicle simulation and the results are compared against real measurement data

A new approach to Thermo-Mechanical tire modelling

Marco Furlan
Senior Modelling and Simulation Engineer
Calspan Corporation
Calspan has developed a new thermo-mechanical tire model to better address current and future needs of the automotive industry. The real-time capable physical tire model simulates tire behaviors using a modular architecture and is designed to be parameterized with readily available and accurate test data. The model relies on a highly accurate contact patch model (which is parameterized with DCPP data), which improves the fidelity of other physical sub-models such us the tread model for the force generation, the thermal model, the wear model or the advanced friction model with road roughness dependency.

Lunch Break

Dynamic driving maneuvers on a new internal drum test rig

Dr Matthias Wangenheim
Assistant Director
Leibniz University Hannover - IDS
At the Institute of Dynamics and Vibration Research of Leibniz University Hannover, we have a new internal drum test rig designed for high-performance lateral driving maneuvers. Besides introducing the test rig we will show the first test results on unsteady rolling conditions: after a step in normal tire load or slip angle tire, forces and torques respond with a time delay. We will show an analysis of the effect of testing conditions such as tire pressure or rolling speed on these time delay constants.

HSU measurement: interpretation with regard to quality and vehicle comfort

Jens Eisenbeiss
Manager Industrial Technology Test Systems
ZF Friedrichhafen AG
Michael Müller
Sales & Key Account Manager Tire R&D Test Equipment
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
The presentation aims to provide answers to the following questions on HSU measurement. Which characteristic tire properties can be seen in the evaluation of HSU measurement? HSU measurement with speed ramps versus measurement at constant speeds. What machine types are there for measuring HSU and what is the influence of the natural frequency of the measuring machine on the measurement results? What are typical HSU measurements and evaluations? What is the influence of different road wheel surfaces? Which parameters for tire models are obtained from the HSU measurements? What further developments are conceivable?

Effect of tire impact on residual fatigue life

William Mars
Endurica LLC
The damage caused by an impact does not always manifest in failure, but does reduce remaining life. The effects of an impact on residual life were studied using Endurica's Incremental Critical Plane Analysis. The analysis begins with finite element modeling of tire break-in and run-out under steady-state rolling, as well as impact under transient conditions. The stress-strain histories obtained in these separate analyses are then combined using Endurica DT to calculate residual life after impact. The simulation accounts for rate and aging effects and produces realistic estimates of the consequences of an impact.

Coffee and Networking Break

Predictive tire testing with VMI LAT100

Marzieh Salehi
Team Leader
VMI Group
There is growing interest in predictive tire performance testing due to the new EU tire labeling regulation to meet sustainability standards. Tire performance such as abrasion, wet/ice/dry grip and rolling resistance can be predicted by the VMI's laboratory abrasion tester (LAT) 100, provided suitable conditions for testing are employed. In this presentation, VMI will review the latest test possibilities with VMI LAT100 which are in agreement with road data.

Tire performance optimization through virtual technology

Haluk Kizilay
Managing Director
TIC-Tire Industry Consulting
New product development (NPD) is a key process for all tire groups and the NPD time is crucial. Virtual technologies enable you to launch world-class products faster and more cost-effectively than ever. TIC has developed a unique virtual technology implementation concept. It would be useful for all tire manufacturers to have an efficient and effective virtual technology process. TIC's key motto is 'Speed to market with the right solution and innovation'. The main points include how to establish virtual technology, how to start simulation, tire engineering enhancement, and model validation and verification, amongst others.

Advanced predictive testing of rubber vulcanizates

Eric Euchler
Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research
Advanced testing of rubbers is essential for lifetime predictions. By considering realistic geometries and application-oriented loading conditions, laboratory data can be linked to real-world product performance. For rubbers, the material’s resistances against crack initiation and propagation are of high importance. A better understanding of the structure-properties relationship considering process and loading histories can be achieved by the coupling of methods, e.g. by studying the damage evolution under fatigue supplemented by structure analysis using x-rays. Ideally, predictive laboratory tests balance accuracy, productivity and efficiency while providing new mechanistic insights and modeling opportunities of rubbers for future applications, e.g. tires for e-vehicles.

A physics-based methodology to estimate tire characteristics

Vadiraj Patil
Research Engineer
Siemens Digital Industries Software
Accurately modeling tire characteristics is vital for creating accurate vehicle simulations, which are required at different stages of vehicle development. Recently, such vehicle simulations have become increasingly utilized during the concept phase, where no physical tire prototypes are yet available. Consequently, estimating tire characteristics is essential. In collaboration with Audi AG, Siemens has developed a tool that can generate estimated tire characteristics via physics-based models. These models are calibrated using a database of existing tire models, and, thus, the accuracy of estimated results is evaluated statistically, based on a large set of measured tire characteristics.