Conference Programme

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 1 - Keynotes + Next-Generation Tire Technology

Welcome

Tony Robinson
Chairman & CEO
founder of Tire Technology Expo
UK

RFID for tires – an enabler for new services

Pierre Loiret
Industrial standards government regulations
Michelin
FRANCE
This presentation will focus on the universal ISO TC31 WG10 RFID tire tags standard, which will be forthcoming as an industry-wide adoption. We will discuss the advantages of having the ability to identify each tire during its entire lifecycle, reasons for implementing a unique tire identifier, and the consequences in terms of new services availability, especially from the perspective of connected and autonomous vehicles.

From a tire manufacturer to a solutions provider for off-the-road operations

Enno Straten
Head of commercial speciality tires
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The key characteristic of the commercial speciality tires business lies within its high complexity of products and tough applications. It includes solid tires in material handling, agricultural tires for the farming segment and the big OTR tires in earthmoving. Enno Straten reveals how the commercial speciality tire market has changed over the years into a market with more and more dedicated products, integrated solutions and new service concepts that answer complex customer needs in demanding environments.

Tire sensing technology – SENSING CORE

Hiroaki Kawasaki
Technical manager
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd
JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has developed a new tire sensing technology called SENSING CORE, which is able to detect road conditions, tire load and tire-vehicle-related performance information. SENSING CORE software analyses existing wheel speed signals without additional dedicated sensors in the tires. The SENSING CORE information can be communicated to the driver and integrated into other vehicle systems, resulting in increased vehicle safety with an environmentally friendly, maintenance-free technology. We believe that SENSING CORE is one of the key technologies that will contribute to the realisation of autonomous transportation and a safer mobile society.

Realising resource-saving tires through innovative tough rubber compound

Dr Katsuhiko Tsunoda
Fellow
Bridgestone Corporation
JAPAN
Bridgestone Corporation is taking part in the ImPACT (Impulsing Paradigm Change through disruptive Technologies) research programme, which is a large, nationally funded five-year R&D activity operated by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. Bridgestone is challenging on realising resource-saving tires through developing an innovative tough rubber compound in this programme. Focusing on unique and not well-known discontinuous crack growth phenomena, comprehensive and multi-faceted analyses are being carried out, aiming to elucidate brand-new tough rubber compound design concepts. The overall research framework and interim research progress will be reported in this presentation.

Objective truck tire performance design helping OEM developments

Mario De Martino
R&D engineer
Prometeon Tyre Group
ITALY
The presentation will explain how Prometeon Tyre Group, exploiting external know-how and virtual prototype development in a real open-innovation environment, is approaching the business of tire design for OEMs in truck, bus, OTR and agro businesses, thanks to collaborations with vehicle manufacturers and universities. The aim is to enhance the tire and vehicle integration. The presentation will also look to the future: driving assistance systems, autonomous vehicles, sustainable mobility and connected tires.

Automotive megatrends and the importance of tire air retention

Jeff Valentage
Global tire market development manager, butyl
ExxonMobil Chemical
USA
Today’s economies are changing dramatically, triggered by rapid developments in emerging markets, the accelerated rise of new technologies, and changing consumer preferences. From these changes, certain megatrends have arisen: sustainability, diverse mobility, electrification and autonomous driving. For the automotive industry to succeed, we must master the trends, lead in innovation and drive these changes. The presentation will cover: electric and autonomous vehicle growth; the importance of air retention in electric and autonomous vehicles; air retention of tires used on commercially sold electric vehicles; in-use real-world efficiency results; opportunity to improve the current EU tire labelling scheme.

Panel Discussion - Next-Generation Tire Technology

Jan Prins
Technical specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
Boris Mergell
Senior vice president - R&D passenger and light truck
Continental GmbH
GERMANY
Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Pierre Loiret
Industrial standards government regulations
Michelin
FRANCE
Christophe de Valroger
Vice president original equipment
Bridgestone Europe
BELGIUM

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 2 - Business Strategy (continued on Wednesday)

10:30

Disruptive change in the global tire industry

David Shaw
CEO
Tire Industry Research
UK
The tire industry globally is facing unprecedented change in technology, business models and approach to business, as well as geographic disruption. This is combined with radical changes in mobility coming from the vehicle sector. This paper attempts to give some views on possible futures for the tire industry and suggests some strategic directions for the future.

10:55

The importance of the emerging markets to the tire industry

Robert Simmons
Head of rubber and tire research
LMC International
UK
The presentation will discuss trends in new vehicle sales in emerging markets and how these increase the number of vehicles on the road. This then leads to higher replacement tire sales although miles driven are falling in many emerging markets. Finally, the presentation will discuss the importance of trade to emerging market tire production and the impact of the use of tariff barriers.

11:20

Low NR prices and a large surplus: what will happen?

Dr Hidde Smit
Consultant
Rubber Forecasts
NETHERLANDS
The presentation will cover: 1) The outlook for total rubber consumption; 2) Price sensitivity of consumers; 3) The outlook for natural rubber (NR) consumption; 4) Boom in planting of NR and the effect on production potential; 5) Price sensitivity of NR producers: the extent to which farmers reduce production intensity; 6) Future planting and the surplus in production potential: when is the peak, when is it finished?; 7) Driving forces for the developments in prices of NR, BD and SBR; 8) The outlook for NR production and for NR, BD and SBR prices.

11:45

Opportunities and challenges for the Indian tire industry responding to the global situation

Vijay Kumar Misra
Technical director
JK Tyre & Industries Ltd
INDIA
Multiplying population, economic growth and increased mobility are accelerating changes in the automobile and tire industry in the Asia-Pacific region. Over the next decade, global demand for vehicles and components, including tires, will be driven by emerging markets like India and China. India is expected to witness strong growth in vehicle production until 2025 across all segments. The opportunities and challenges posed by recent development in the Indian automobile industry will be discussed, with special reference to radialisation of commercial vehicles and factors affecting the rate of change. The preparedness of the Indian tire industry to respond to the global situation will also be discussed.

12:10 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Green mobility challenges and opportunities for the rubber and automotive industries

Dr Rabindra Mukhopadhyay
Director & CE
Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer & Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI)
INDIA
Road congestion, urban sprawl and air pollution are among the most important challenges being faced by cities today; indeed, green objectives have been introduced in the majority of cities. Green mobility is a key sector for green economic growth. This paper will provide an overview of challenges and opportunities for the rubber, automotive and related industries, working towards green mobility through a focus on: green economy, decoupling natural resources used and environmental impact from economic growth, usage of advanced material, design for environment (DFE), resource optimisation with 4R strategy (reduce, reuse, recycle and renewable), smart manufacturing and cleaner production.

14:25

Tire manufacturing in an age of disruption

Harm Voortman
CEO
VMI Group
NETHERLANDS
The automotive industry is facing potentially rapid and disruptive changes. The tire industry needs to consider key emerging trends and evaluate how to manage them proactively. This presentation will cover: the role of growing automation and machine learning; maximising rich data flows and analytics for production optimisation; integrating islands of automation to transform factory management and resource usage; potential growth in mass customisation, leading to new and disruptive business models; security optimisation in a connected world. Change is a certainty: are we ready for the disruption it could bring?

14:50

Intelligent solutions with customer focus by Bosch Rexroth

Mattias Ljungdahl
Application manager
Bosch Rexroth
SWEDEN
Uptime and productivity are already facts with condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. The challenge is to deliver the information in a useful and understandable way to the customer. Sensor signals and logging are easy, but to pinpoint the failure and understand the readings you must have expert knowledge. This is our advantage compared with many other digital solutions. Hägglunds inside intelligence is not just about delivering data; it’s a complete concept with service contract, expert evaluations, weekly reports and instant alarms from your system to the designated service station. It’s about understanding the needs of the customer.

15:15

Virtual tire plants – experiences and results in reality

Dr Gert Nomden
Senior consultant
Cards PLM Solutions BV
NETHERLANDS
Material flow simulations of tire manufacturing operations are gaining traction. These virtual tire plants offer important benefits to tire producers: increased productivity of existing facilities, reduced investment in the planning of new facilities, and reductions in inventory and throughput times. These benefits are realisable throughout the entire chain of production and logistics, both in brownfield and greenfield sites. Material flow simulation is versatile at a low implementation cost, offering a valuable, cost-efficient and risk-free testbed to achieve world-class operations. It is becoming an indispensable aid for tire manufacturers during the design, commissioning and streamlining of their plants and processes.

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 3 - Development in Cord, Steel, Wire and Reinforcement

14:00

An alternative approach to RF-free dipping standardisation

Dr Mustafa Yasin Sen
Project leader
Kordsa
TURKEY
Dr Thomas Kramer
Head of expert field reinforcement and skim compounds
Continental Reifen Deutschland
GERMANY
Kordsa and Continental are working together on a new, sustainable adhesion system standard for bonding textile reinforcing materials to rubber-based compounds. Within this joint presentation, first results will be shown. The formulation is an eco-friendly alternative to resorcinol- and formaldehyde-based adhesives widely applied for more than 80 years. In view of the critical fields of application, exchanging the adhesion technology represents a major challenge to the tire industry. Via offering a free licensing concept for the newly developed adhesion technology, both companies agreed to try an alternative approach to deal with that challenge. An opportunity to raise more detailed question will be provided during that day at the TireExpo.

14:25

A review of steel cord and wire-rubber adhesion

Dr Guy Buytaert
Senior R&D project manager and team leader
Bekaert
BELGIUM
Although brass-coated steel cords are extensively used as reinforcement material in radial tires, bronze-coated wires are the foundation reinforcement of tire beads. It is crucial for the performance and lifespan of passenger and truck tires to achieve optimal adhesion between rubber and steel. This presentation will review the adhesion build-up and degradation mechanisms of the CuxS adhesion interphase layer, which bonds brass-coated steel cords and bronze-coated steel wires with rubber. Other topics include standard adhesion tests, advanced interphase studies, current state-of-the-art technology and what the future holds for improving rubber adhesion.

14:50

Angular fabrics: process optimisation for reinforcement of rubber products

Katharina Bibbig
Product and process manager
Mehler Engineered Products GmbH
GERMANY
MEP developed its angular fabric (Spidercord) for the optimisation of production processes with rubber products. Angular fabric allows for the elimination of several processing steps after calendering.

15:15

MilliCap ready-to-use cap-ply – value beyond cost savings

Peter Eeckhout
Development manager
Milliken Textiles BVBA
BELGIUM
Supporting the trend towards smaller production batches and improved fuel efficiency, MilliCap offers tire plants the ability to source ready-to-use cap ply strips that have potential to reduce tire weight and rolling resistance while maintaining manufacturing flexibility and eliminating preparation steps. Developments in fabric construction and tack chemistry are enabling use of Milliken’s latest generation of MilliCap cap ply strips in higher-speed tires, and have further eased the tire building process. Advanced MilliCap cap ply strips have joined Milliken’s family of market-proven, ready-to-use tire reinforcements.

15:40

Modern validation methods and test equipment of tire reinforcement materials

Philippe van Bogaert
CEO
Bogimac
BELGIUM
Beyond static ultimate tensile and peel failure tests, the material lab needs to evaluate the reinforcement and its combination with the rubber matrix close to real usage under high cycle fatigue test conditions. Different testing methods are needed to validate new reinforcement materials and ensure the quality during manufacturing of blank and calendered steel/textile cord/fabrics/tapes and their integration in the rubber matrix. Depending on the cord usage in the tire construction, different test conditions must be evaluated: fatigue tension-tension, single and reverse bending under tension, bend-rotation bending, traverse contact pressure, dynamic compression, dynamic adhesion and impact plunging. To obtain relevant results it is also important to have precise sample preparation and reliable sample clamping systems. Modern high-performance and emerging industry-standard MFTEs (material fatigue test equipment) are used in the material labs of the leading tire, reinforcement and adhesion manufacturers.

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 4 - Polymer Science

10:00

Rubber compounding as a key to control costs

Jacob Peled
Executive chairman
Pelmar Engineering
ISRAEL
The importance of correct and accurate compounds has been a well-known axiom for many years. But how to achieve these is still debatable. The quality and performance of most tires, even agri and industrial, is determined largely by the reputability, accuracy and consistency of the process and the compound itself. Lately, traceability has become a major factor in addition to sustainability, which is a must. Maintaining the above will result in major savings in the mixing process costs and the compound value. New systems and equipment are now being developed and introduced to the market.

10:25

Advanced manufacturing: the 21st century opportunity

Eric Amis
Dean, College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering
University of Akron
USA
Even the most exciting new materials must buy their way into real applications, especially in demanding industries. Performance, cost, reliability, sustainability and time to market must all converge to make a successful transition from the laboratory to successful application. Going from invention and design through scale up and production demands the optimisation of multiple – often competing – factors. For new manufacturing technologies, there is an opportunity to integrate scientifically based approaches, focused on the challenges of manufacturing. We will discuss the application of agile measurement methods, integrated modelling and virtual design optimisation, and their prospects for polymeric materials.

10:50

The use of EPDM for improved tire sidewall performance

Philip Hough
Senior technical manager
Arlanxeo Performance Elastomers
NETHERLANDS
Attention is given to the use of EPDM in tire sidewall compounds to replace PPDs for non-staining ozone protection. EPDM has a fully saturated polymer backbone, giving it excellent resistance to ozone and oxidative ageing, unlike polydienes that are susceptible to main chain scission. Blending of EPDM with natural and polybutadiene rubbers presents challenges due to differences in solubility and cure rates. However, it is shown that combining best practice for compound design, mixing methodology and the type of EPDM gives sidewall compounds closely matching typical sidewall properties, but with improved heat ageing, ozone resistance and dynamic behaviour.

11:15 - 11:35

Break

11:35

Bio-Liquid Polymer for winter tires

Keiji Ikeda
Manager
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd
JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has adopted Bio Liquid Polymer (BLP) in tread compounds for winter tires. BLP enhances ice grip because it improves softness of the tread rubber compound. In addition, BLP has the unique characteristic that it can stay in rubber compound longer term and keep softness longer than conventional oil. This means ice grip is maintained for the long term. Also in this presentation, our activities on biomass material and simulation technologies will be reported.

12:00

Current developments in rubber rheology

Jorge Lacayo-Pineda
Head of materials evaluation expert field
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Some of the latest innovative developments in the assessment of rubber rheology, including temperature scanning stress relaxation and Fourier transform rheology, are described and their potential to contribute to the understanding of basic rubber behaviour is discussed. Examples of applications on natural and synthetic rubbers are presented to illustrate these new techniques.

12:25

Functionalised polymers and their effect on tire performance

David Hardy
Technical service and development
Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Functionalising butadiene rubbers is a proven method employed to improve their interaction with silica fillers. This results in the enhancement of dynamic performance in passenger tire tread compounds. Tire testing data will show that this results in reduced rolling resistance but can also lead to a deterioration in other important tire properties such as handling/cornering (among others), which are not covered by the tire label.

12:50 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

SSBR for energy-efficient and safe tires

Dr Sven Thiele
R&D leader process and product development anionic
Trinseo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Energy efficiency and safety standards are at the centre of any tire approval process, and durability is often key to consumers' purchasing decisions. Furthermore, good rubber formulation process conditions are a key characteristic of an economical tire plant. The diverse market needs for high-performance passenger car tires is addressed by Trinseo SSBR products and developments. Therefore, a new Trinseo grade improves tire grip properties, and another new Trinseo functionalised SSBR grade enables a substantial rolling resistance/grip balance improvement with good rubber formulation processing characteristics. SSBR capacity expansion at Trinseo is going to enable the market availability of the new grades.

14:25

Quality improvement of tire compounds by fine mesh straining

Winfried Trost
Business area manager rubber extrusion systems
UTH GmbH
GERMANY
Product quality requirements have been continually growing for the rubber processing industry during the past few years, while the pressure to contain costs has significantly increased for some elastomer products. Clean rubber compounds are the prerequisite for meeting these requirements. Impurities lead to an increase in the reject and waste rates. This problem can be counteracted by straining the rubber compound. The Roll-ex gear extruder technology allows the precise extrusion of materials and the use of extremely fine strainers.

14:50

Advantages of NKNK new rubbers for tires production

Dr Aidar Vagizov
Head of R&D lab
NKNK
RUSSIA
The presentation shows the results of the company development of new commercial and prospective grades of rubber. For today, three new grades of anionic and stereoregular rubbers have been developed at NKNK to produce high-performance tires with low rolling resistance, improved wet grip and wear resistance. Further prospective fields of BR and SSBR development will be presented.

15:15

Easy processing SSBR for UHP tread and high silica load

Dr Fabio Bacchelli
Technical manager, tire
Versalis
ITALY
Manufacturers of UHP tires can now overcome the difficult processing of traditional high-performance batch SSBR. A high molecular weight continuous grade containing a controlled amount of long chain branching was specially designed to optimise processing and performance at the same time. The molecular architecture able to conjugate those extremely different aspects was determined on the basis of relaxation time spectrum and non-linear viscoelasticity. By considering high-severity recipes with more than 100 phr of silica, the processability results are comparable with those of emulsion SBR, while keeping the traction properties at the same level as traditional batch grades.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

Liquid rubber for safer and faster tires

Marcel Gruendken
Technical manager, elastomers
Kuraray Group & University of Twente.
GERMANY
Kuraray Liquid Rubber (KLR) acts as a co-vulcanisable plasticiser and provides rubber modification that exceeds the pure plasticising effect. This presentation introduces the different liquid diene rubbers. Depending on the backbone and microstructure, liquid rubber can modify tire performances such as abrasion resistance, rolling resistance and wet grip as well as snow and ice grip. In particular, the latter can be significantly improved by liquid polybutadiene (LBR). This will be discussed via DMA characteristics and ice grip test results.

16:25

New functionalised SSBR types for overall improved tire performance

Chigusa Yamada
Synthetic rubber development
Asahi Kasei Corporation
JAPAN
Asahi-Kasei Solution-SBR (S-SBR), developed with proprietary functionalisation, brings significant improvement to the balance between fuel efficiency, wet grip and wear resistance of high-performance eco-tire treads. New S-SBR grades will be introduced and a new strategy for eco tires will be presented. A special emphasis will be laid on the relationship between polymer structure and performance in vulcanised compounds.

16:50

Sibur's elastomers development strategy

Afina Rumiantseva
Senior researcher
Sibur
RUSSIA
Our processes to achieve the best balance in tire output characteristics via polymer structure design SSBR/BR micro- and macro-structure variations are optimised for different tire applications depending on the philosophies of the tire tread producers. Sibur’s functionalised SSBR/BR grades provide a fine balance of rolling resistance, traction behaviour and wear resistance. Sibur is a customer-orientated company and ready to produce products in keeping with special customer requirements.

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued on Wednesday and Thursday)

10:30

Foreign-object damage-resistant materials in aircraft tires

Dr Abilash Kumar Nair
Senior materials development engineer
Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Limited
UK
Sheheryar Butt
Commodity sourcing manager
Dunlop Aircraft Tyres
UK
The performance of aircraft tires on the ground is critical for passenger safety and comfort. Damage caused by foreign objects is a common reason for premature tire failure. As aircraft tires operate at high load, speed and pressure, they can be damaged by foreign objects on the runways or by damaged pavement surfaces. This paper investigates foreign-object damage (FOD) resistance of aircraft tires using different textile materials and constructions. Cut and puncture resistance of different textile materials and an in-house-developed FOD test as a measure of the cut/puncture resistance of the tires are reported.

10:55

Road hazard impacts – influence and forensic signs on radial tires

Vandy Price
Senior technical advisor
Michelin North America
USA
This presentation summarises existing literature on the topic of road hazard impacts and their potential to cause tread belt detachments. It also brings to light a cache of impact studies never published before, which support the premise that road hazard impacts can lead to tread belt detachments and highlight the forensic evidence these events leave behind. Specifically, the study contains 24 examples of passenger, light truck and commercial truck tires, both new and used, that were tested for endurance, impacted and tested to failure on a road wheel and subsequently inspected. All failed with tread belt detachment at impact point.

11:20

Morphology and nanomechanical characteristics of NR/SBR blends

Darja Klat
Special lab scientist
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Tire tread materials are complex rubber compounds generally made of blends of at least two rubbers, fillers and other materials, resulting in multiphase morphology. The properties of these rubber blends are influenced by morphology and microphase characteristics. Experimental techniques are required that can both discriminate between phases in a blend and provide quantitative information about their physical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the effect of polymer ratio and microstructure of SBR on blend morphology and nanomechanical properties of unfilled NR/SBR blends. Nanomechanical properties were determined and compared with macroscopic values obtained by DMA.

11:45

Pot-Hole: integrity index evaluation

Daniel Pugliese
R&D engineer
Pirelli
ITALY
Pot-Hole is an important performance, especially for critical markets such as APAC and LATAM. In this paper we will evaluate an integrity index that states the probability of a tire failing the pot-hole test.

12:10 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Effect of non-linear elasticity to crack growth of tough rubber compound

Dr Yoshihiro Morishita
Material scientist
Bridgestone Corporation
JAPAN
The understanding of the crack-growth phenomena in rubbers is an important issue in industrial applications because the crack growth plays an essential role in the life of the tire. Our home-built experimental setup enables us to measure simultaneously the velocity of crack growth and the crack-tip profile as a function of input tearing energy. We found that filled rubbers show an abrupt and dramatic change in the velocity of crack growth in a narrow range of the tearing energy. We reveal the contribution of non-linear elasticity to the velocity transition on the basis of detailed analysis for kinetics of crack growth and crack-tip shapes.

14:25

Test World – meeting the increasing demand for year-round winter testing

Janne Seurujärvi
Managing director
Test World OY
FINLAND
In 2012 Test World opened the world’s first indoor winter test facilities, allowing vehicle and tire developers to test on natural snow 12 months of the year. Today these facilities are still unique, and vehicle and tire manufacturers alike are demanding more. Test World continues to innovate to offer new indoor facilities providing winter and summer testing capability all year round. Janne Seurujärvi will discuss how these new facilities have evolved, how Test World is making significant investment to develop its facilities to meet the many different requirements, and how technical challenges have been overcome.

14:50

A non-contacting technique to measure deformations of rolling tires

Dr Mohammad Behroozi
Research fellow
University of Birmingham
UK
The deformations of tires can indicate the magnitude of vertical, lateral and longitudinal loads that are applied to a vehicle. However, measuring these deformations has always been a challenge. Strain gauges usually fail to measure these deformations after a few cycles because of high variations of strain in a rolling tire. Furthermore, these sensors can only provide strain at discrete locations. In the current work, we use Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (3D DIC), a non-contacting technique, to measure the deformation of a tire. A test rig was designed and manufactured to mount a pair of cameras on a car wheel. The following authors have contributed to the presentation: Mr Aakash Mange, Dr. Javad Baqersad

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Complex characterisation of rubber’s resistance against chip and cut behaviour

Sergio Cavaglieri
Student
Politecnico di Milano
ITALY
This work describes analytical methods to characterise the failure during lab-simulated operation of tires in rough terrain, that show a behaviour known as chip and cut effect. Methodology: experimental observation of damage occurring under realistic tire loading conditions with a new lab instrument that controls/records applied load displacements. Natural rubber (NR), butadiene rubber (BR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and binary rubber blends suitable for tire tread applications are examined. The mechanisms that affect tire tread in service (e.g. dynamic impacts, frictional sliding, abrasion by hard asperities) are discussed. Finally, heat build-up during the chip and cut process has been measured and quantified for given varied rubbers.

16:00

Comparison between four different force and moment testing methods

Anton Albinsson
PhD candidate
Chalmers University of Technology
SWEDEN
Increasing accuracy requirements for handling simulations implies a need for more accurate tire models. Hence, new force and moment testing methods are being investigated to more accurately represent the real-world road surfaces on which the physical vehicle will be tested. This contribution compares force and moment testing results from four different sources: traditional flat-trac measurements, a mobile tire testing rig, vehicle-based tire testing, and measurements from the new tire testing facility Camber Ridge. The contribution mainly focuses on the differences in lateral tire force characteristics, its causes and implications for full-vehicle simulations.

16:25

Measuring real-life rolling resistance using tire liner temperature sensing

Alan Bennetts
Director
Bay Systems
UK
The presentation will discuss using a 65-channel IR pyrometer sensing system to measure bead-to-bead temperature distribution for a variety of tires. The weighted temperature distributions correlate well with standard rolling road laboratory test data. Using this instrumentation on the road allows real-life rolling resistance data to be gathered. The effect of vehicle loading and driving styles can now be used to help improve tire design to improve rolling resistance in use.

16:50

Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis in tire technology

Sahbi Aloui
Application engineer
Netzsch Gabo Instruments GmbH
GERMANY
Netzsch Gabo Instruments has more than 40 years' experience in manufacturing dynamic mechanical thermal analysers for R&D and quality control of rubber composites and tire components. The fully automatic testing systems EPLEXOR 500 N with Autosampler Changer ASC are carefully developed to guarantee customers' essential requirements. The quality and repeatability of the results are high, regardless of the analysis modes. EPLEXOR 500 N provides user-friendly handling and evaluation routines in automatic or manual operation mode. Due to the modular system design, static and dynamic load generation are independent and the working range is up to 60mm.

Day 1: Tuesday 20 February

Stream 1 - Keynotes + Next-Generation Tire Technology

Welcome

Tony Robinson
Chairman & CEO
founder of Tire Technology Expo
UK

RFID for tires – an enabler for new services

Pierre Loiret
Industrial standards government regulations
Michelin
FRANCE
This presentation will focus on the universal ISO TC31 WG10 RFID tire tags standard, which will be forthcoming as an industry-wide adoption. We will discuss the advantages of having the ability to identify each tire during its entire lifecycle, reasons for implementing a unique tire identifier, and the consequences in terms of new services availability, especially from the perspective of connected and autonomous vehicles.

From a tire manufacturer to a solutions provider for off-the-road operations

Enno Straten
Head of commercial speciality tires
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The key characteristic of the commercial speciality tires business lies within its high complexity of products and tough applications. It includes solid tires in material handling, agricultural tires for the farming segment and the big OTR tires in earthmoving. Enno Straten reveals how the commercial speciality tire market has changed over the years into a market with more and more dedicated products, integrated solutions and new service concepts that answer complex customer needs in demanding environments.

Tire sensing technology – SENSING CORE

Hiroaki Kawasaki
Technical manager
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd
JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has developed a new tire sensing technology called SENSING CORE, which is able to detect road conditions, tire load and tire-vehicle-related performance information. SENSING CORE software analyses existing wheel speed signals without additional dedicated sensors in the tires. The SENSING CORE information can be communicated to the driver and integrated into other vehicle systems, resulting in increased vehicle safety with an environmentally friendly, maintenance-free technology. We believe that SENSING CORE is one of the key technologies that will contribute to the realisation of autonomous transportation and a safer mobile society.

Realising resource-saving tires through innovative tough rubber compound

Dr Katsuhiko Tsunoda
Fellow
Bridgestone Corporation
JAPAN
Bridgestone Corporation is taking part in the ImPACT (Impulsing Paradigm Change through disruptive Technologies) research programme, which is a large, nationally funded five-year R&D activity operated by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. Bridgestone is challenging on realising resource-saving tires through developing an innovative tough rubber compound in this programme. Focusing on unique and not well-known discontinuous crack growth phenomena, comprehensive and multi-faceted analyses are being carried out, aiming to elucidate brand-new tough rubber compound design concepts. The overall research framework and interim research progress will be reported in this presentation.

Objective truck tire performance design helping OEM developments

Mario De Martino
R&D engineer
Prometeon Tyre Group
ITALY
The presentation will explain how Prometeon Tyre Group, exploiting external know-how and virtual prototype development in a real open-innovation environment, is approaching the business of tire design for OEMs in truck, bus, OTR and agro businesses, thanks to collaborations with vehicle manufacturers and universities. The aim is to enhance the tire and vehicle integration. The presentation will also look to the future: driving assistance systems, autonomous vehicles, sustainable mobility and connected tires.

Automotive megatrends and the importance of tire air retention

Jeff Valentage
Global tire market development manager, butyl
ExxonMobil Chemical
USA
Today’s economies are changing dramatically, triggered by rapid developments in emerging markets, the accelerated rise of new technologies, and changing consumer preferences. From these changes, certain megatrends have arisen: sustainability, diverse mobility, electrification and autonomous driving. For the automotive industry to succeed, we must master the trends, lead in innovation and drive these changes. The presentation will cover: electric and autonomous vehicle growth; the importance of air retention in electric and autonomous vehicles; air retention of tires used on commercially sold electric vehicles; in-use real-world efficiency results; opportunity to improve the current EU tire labelling scheme.

Panel Discussion - Next-Generation Tire Technology

Jan Prins
Technical specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
Boris Mergell
Senior vice president - R&D passenger and light truck
Continental GmbH
GERMANY
Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Pierre Loiret
Industrial standards government regulations
Michelin
FRANCE
Christophe de Valroger
Vice president original equipment
Bridgestone Europe
BELGIUM

Stream 2 - Business Strategy (continued on Wednesday)

10:30

Disruptive change in the global tire industry

David Shaw
CEO
Tire Industry Research
UK
The tire industry globally is facing unprecedented change in technology, business models and approach to business, as well as geographic disruption. This is combined with radical changes in mobility coming from the vehicle sector. This paper attempts to give some views on possible futures for the tire industry and suggests some strategic directions for the future.

10:55

The importance of the emerging markets to the tire industry

Robert Simmons
Head of rubber and tire research
LMC International
UK
The presentation will discuss trends in new vehicle sales in emerging markets and how these increase the number of vehicles on the road. This then leads to higher replacement tire sales although miles driven are falling in many emerging markets. Finally, the presentation will discuss the importance of trade to emerging market tire production and the impact of the use of tariff barriers.

11:20

Low NR prices and a large surplus: what will happen?

Dr Hidde Smit
Consultant
Rubber Forecasts
NETHERLANDS
The presentation will cover: 1) The outlook for total rubber consumption; 2) Price sensitivity of consumers; 3) The outlook for natural rubber (NR) consumption; 4) Boom in planting of NR and the effect on production potential; 5) Price sensitivity of NR producers: the extent to which farmers reduce production intensity; 6) Future planting and the surplus in production potential: when is the peak, when is it finished?; 7) Driving forces for the developments in prices of NR, BD and SBR; 8) The outlook for NR production and for NR, BD and SBR prices.

11:45

Opportunities and challenges for the Indian tire industry responding to the global situation

Vijay Kumar Misra
Technical director
JK Tyre & Industries Ltd
INDIA
Multiplying population, economic growth and increased mobility are accelerating changes in the automobile and tire industry in the Asia-Pacific region. Over the next decade, global demand for vehicles and components, including tires, will be driven by emerging markets like India and China. India is expected to witness strong growth in vehicle production until 2025 across all segments. The opportunities and challenges posed by recent development in the Indian automobile industry will be discussed, with special reference to radialisation of commercial vehicles and factors affecting the rate of change. The preparedness of the Indian tire industry to respond to the global situation will also be discussed.

12:10 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Green mobility challenges and opportunities for the rubber and automotive industries

Dr Rabindra Mukhopadhyay
Director & CE
Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer & Tyre Research Institute (HASETRI)
INDIA
Road congestion, urban sprawl and air pollution are among the most important challenges being faced by cities today; indeed, green objectives have been introduced in the majority of cities. Green mobility is a key sector for green economic growth. This paper will provide an overview of challenges and opportunities for the rubber, automotive and related industries, working towards green mobility through a focus on: green economy, decoupling natural resources used and environmental impact from economic growth, usage of advanced material, design for environment (DFE), resource optimisation with 4R strategy (reduce, reuse, recycle and renewable), smart manufacturing and cleaner production.

14:25

Tire manufacturing in an age of disruption

Harm Voortman
CEO
VMI Group
NETHERLANDS
The automotive industry is facing potentially rapid and disruptive changes. The tire industry needs to consider key emerging trends and evaluate how to manage them proactively. This presentation will cover: the role of growing automation and machine learning; maximising rich data flows and analytics for production optimisation; integrating islands of automation to transform factory management and resource usage; potential growth in mass customisation, leading to new and disruptive business models; security optimisation in a connected world. Change is a certainty: are we ready for the disruption it could bring?

14:50

Intelligent solutions with customer focus by Bosch Rexroth

Mattias Ljungdahl
Application manager
Bosch Rexroth
SWEDEN
Uptime and productivity are already facts with condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. The challenge is to deliver the information in a useful and understandable way to the customer. Sensor signals and logging are easy, but to pinpoint the failure and understand the readings you must have expert knowledge. This is our advantage compared with many other digital solutions. Hägglunds inside intelligence is not just about delivering data; it’s a complete concept with service contract, expert evaluations, weekly reports and instant alarms from your system to the designated service station. It’s about understanding the needs of the customer.

15:15

Virtual tire plants – experiences and results in reality

Dr Gert Nomden
Senior consultant
Cards PLM Solutions BV
NETHERLANDS
Material flow simulations of tire manufacturing operations are gaining traction. These virtual tire plants offer important benefits to tire producers: increased productivity of existing facilities, reduced investment in the planning of new facilities, and reductions in inventory and throughput times. These benefits are realisable throughout the entire chain of production and logistics, both in brownfield and greenfield sites. Material flow simulation is versatile at a low implementation cost, offering a valuable, cost-efficient and risk-free testbed to achieve world-class operations. It is becoming an indispensable aid for tire manufacturers during the design, commissioning and streamlining of their plants and processes.

Stream 3 - Development in Cord, Steel, Wire and Reinforcement

14:00

An alternative approach to RF-free dipping standardisation

Dr Mustafa Yasin Sen
Project leader
Kordsa
TURKEY
Dr Thomas Kramer
Head of expert field reinforcement and skim compounds
Continental Reifen Deutschland
GERMANY
Kordsa and Continental are working together on a new, sustainable adhesion system standard for bonding textile reinforcing materials to rubber-based compounds. Within this joint presentation, first results will be shown. The formulation is an eco-friendly alternative to resorcinol- and formaldehyde-based adhesives widely applied for more than 80 years. In view of the critical fields of application, exchanging the adhesion technology represents a major challenge to the tire industry. Via offering a free licensing concept for the newly developed adhesion technology, both companies agreed to try an alternative approach to deal with that challenge. An opportunity to raise more detailed question will be provided during that day at the TireExpo.

14:25

A review of steel cord and wire-rubber adhesion

Dr Guy Buytaert
Senior R&D project manager and team leader
Bekaert
BELGIUM
Although brass-coated steel cords are extensively used as reinforcement material in radial tires, bronze-coated wires are the foundation reinforcement of tire beads. It is crucial for the performance and lifespan of passenger and truck tires to achieve optimal adhesion between rubber and steel. This presentation will review the adhesion build-up and degradation mechanisms of the CuxS adhesion interphase layer, which bonds brass-coated steel cords and bronze-coated steel wires with rubber. Other topics include standard adhesion tests, advanced interphase studies, current state-of-the-art technology and what the future holds for improving rubber adhesion.

14:50

Angular fabrics: process optimisation for reinforcement of rubber products

Katharina Bibbig
Product and process manager
Mehler Engineered Products GmbH
GERMANY
MEP developed its angular fabric (Spidercord) for the optimisation of production processes with rubber products. Angular fabric allows for the elimination of several processing steps after calendering.

15:15

MilliCap ready-to-use cap-ply – value beyond cost savings

Peter Eeckhout
Development manager
Milliken Textiles BVBA
BELGIUM
Supporting the trend towards smaller production batches and improved fuel efficiency, MilliCap offers tire plants the ability to source ready-to-use cap ply strips that have potential to reduce tire weight and rolling resistance while maintaining manufacturing flexibility and eliminating preparation steps. Developments in fabric construction and tack chemistry are enabling use of Milliken’s latest generation of MilliCap cap ply strips in higher-speed tires, and have further eased the tire building process. Advanced MilliCap cap ply strips have joined Milliken’s family of market-proven, ready-to-use tire reinforcements.

15:40

Modern validation methods and test equipment of tire reinforcement materials

Philippe van Bogaert
CEO
Bogimac
BELGIUM
Beyond static ultimate tensile and peel failure tests, the material lab needs to evaluate the reinforcement and its combination with the rubber matrix close to real usage under high cycle fatigue test conditions. Different testing methods are needed to validate new reinforcement materials and ensure the quality during manufacturing of blank and calendered steel/textile cord/fabrics/tapes and their integration in the rubber matrix. Depending on the cord usage in the tire construction, different test conditions must be evaluated: fatigue tension-tension, single and reverse bending under tension, bend-rotation bending, traverse contact pressure, dynamic compression, dynamic adhesion and impact plunging. To obtain relevant results it is also important to have precise sample preparation and reliable sample clamping systems. Modern high-performance and emerging industry-standard MFTEs (material fatigue test equipment) are used in the material labs of the leading tire, reinforcement and adhesion manufacturers.

Stream 4 - Polymer Science

10:00

Rubber compounding as a key to control costs

Jacob Peled
Executive chairman
Pelmar Engineering
ISRAEL
The importance of correct and accurate compounds has been a well-known axiom for many years. But how to achieve these is still debatable. The quality and performance of most tires, even agri and industrial, is determined largely by the reputability, accuracy and consistency of the process and the compound itself. Lately, traceability has become a major factor in addition to sustainability, which is a must. Maintaining the above will result in major savings in the mixing process costs and the compound value. New systems and equipment are now being developed and introduced to the market.

10:25

Advanced manufacturing: the 21st century opportunity

Eric Amis
Dean, College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering
University of Akron
USA
Even the most exciting new materials must buy their way into real applications, especially in demanding industries. Performance, cost, reliability, sustainability and time to market must all converge to make a successful transition from the laboratory to successful application. Going from invention and design through scale up and production demands the optimisation of multiple – often competing – factors. For new manufacturing technologies, there is an opportunity to integrate scientifically based approaches, focused on the challenges of manufacturing. We will discuss the application of agile measurement methods, integrated modelling and virtual design optimisation, and their prospects for polymeric materials.

10:50

The use of EPDM for improved tire sidewall performance

Philip Hough
Senior technical manager
Arlanxeo Performance Elastomers
NETHERLANDS
Attention is given to the use of EPDM in tire sidewall compounds to replace PPDs for non-staining ozone protection. EPDM has a fully saturated polymer backbone, giving it excellent resistance to ozone and oxidative ageing, unlike polydienes that are susceptible to main chain scission. Blending of EPDM with natural and polybutadiene rubbers presents challenges due to differences in solubility and cure rates. However, it is shown that combining best practice for compound design, mixing methodology and the type of EPDM gives sidewall compounds closely matching typical sidewall properties, but with improved heat ageing, ozone resistance and dynamic behaviour.

11:15 - 11:35

Break

11:35

Bio-Liquid Polymer for winter tires

Keiji Ikeda
Manager
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd
JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has adopted Bio Liquid Polymer (BLP) in tread compounds for winter tires. BLP enhances ice grip because it improves softness of the tread rubber compound. In addition, BLP has the unique characteristic that it can stay in rubber compound longer term and keep softness longer than conventional oil. This means ice grip is maintained for the long term. Also in this presentation, our activities on biomass material and simulation technologies will be reported.

12:00

Current developments in rubber rheology

Jorge Lacayo-Pineda
Head of materials evaluation expert field
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Some of the latest innovative developments in the assessment of rubber rheology, including temperature scanning stress relaxation and Fourier transform rheology, are described and their potential to contribute to the understanding of basic rubber behaviour is discussed. Examples of applications on natural and synthetic rubbers are presented to illustrate these new techniques.

12:25

Functionalised polymers and their effect on tire performance

David Hardy
Technical service and development
Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Functionalising butadiene rubbers is a proven method employed to improve their interaction with silica fillers. This results in the enhancement of dynamic performance in passenger tire tread compounds. Tire testing data will show that this results in reduced rolling resistance but can also lead to a deterioration in other important tire properties such as handling/cornering (among others), which are not covered by the tire label.

12:50 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

SSBR for energy-efficient and safe tires

Dr Sven Thiele
R&D leader process and product development anionic
Trinseo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Energy efficiency and safety standards are at the centre of any tire approval process, and durability is often key to consumers' purchasing decisions. Furthermore, good rubber formulation process conditions are a key characteristic of an economical tire plant. The diverse market needs for high-performance passenger car tires is addressed by Trinseo SSBR products and developments. Therefore, a new Trinseo grade improves tire grip properties, and another new Trinseo functionalised SSBR grade enables a substantial rolling resistance/grip balance improvement with good rubber formulation processing characteristics. SSBR capacity expansion at Trinseo is going to enable the market availability of the new grades.

14:25

Quality improvement of tire compounds by fine mesh straining

Winfried Trost
Business area manager rubber extrusion systems
UTH GmbH
GERMANY
Product quality requirements have been continually growing for the rubber processing industry during the past few years, while the pressure to contain costs has significantly increased for some elastomer products. Clean rubber compounds are the prerequisite for meeting these requirements. Impurities lead to an increase in the reject and waste rates. This problem can be counteracted by straining the rubber compound. The Roll-ex gear extruder technology allows the precise extrusion of materials and the use of extremely fine strainers.

14:50

Advantages of NKNK new rubbers for tires production

Dr Aidar Vagizov
Head of R&D lab
NKNK
RUSSIA
The presentation shows the results of the company development of new commercial and prospective grades of rubber. For today, three new grades of anionic and stereoregular rubbers have been developed at NKNK to produce high-performance tires with low rolling resistance, improved wet grip and wear resistance. Further prospective fields of BR and SSBR development will be presented.

15:15

Easy processing SSBR for UHP tread and high silica load

Dr Fabio Bacchelli
Technical manager, tire
Versalis
ITALY
Manufacturers of UHP tires can now overcome the difficult processing of traditional high-performance batch SSBR. A high molecular weight continuous grade containing a controlled amount of long chain branching was specially designed to optimise processing and performance at the same time. The molecular architecture able to conjugate those extremely different aspects was determined on the basis of relaxation time spectrum and non-linear viscoelasticity. By considering high-severity recipes with more than 100 phr of silica, the processability results are comparable with those of emulsion SBR, while keeping the traction properties at the same level as traditional batch grades.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

Liquid rubber for safer and faster tires

Marcel Gruendken
Technical manager, elastomers
Kuraray Group & University of Twente.
GERMANY
Kuraray Liquid Rubber (KLR) acts as a co-vulcanisable plasticiser and provides rubber modification that exceeds the pure plasticising effect. This presentation introduces the different liquid diene rubbers. Depending on the backbone and microstructure, liquid rubber can modify tire performances such as abrasion resistance, rolling resistance and wet grip as well as snow and ice grip. In particular, the latter can be significantly improved by liquid polybutadiene (LBR). This will be discussed via DMA characteristics and ice grip test results.

16:25

New functionalised SSBR types for overall improved tire performance

Chigusa Yamada
Synthetic rubber development
Asahi Kasei Corporation
JAPAN
Asahi-Kasei Solution-SBR (S-SBR), developed with proprietary functionalisation, brings significant improvement to the balance between fuel efficiency, wet grip and wear resistance of high-performance eco-tire treads. New S-SBR grades will be introduced and a new strategy for eco tires will be presented. A special emphasis will be laid on the relationship between polymer structure and performance in vulcanised compounds.

16:50

Sibur's elastomers development strategy

Afina Rumiantseva
Senior researcher
Sibur
RUSSIA
Our processes to achieve the best balance in tire output characteristics via polymer structure design SSBR/BR micro- and macro-structure variations are optimised for different tire applications depending on the philosophies of the tire tread producers. Sibur’s functionalised SSBR/BR grades provide a fine balance of rolling resistance, traction behaviour and wear resistance. Sibur is a customer-orientated company and ready to produce products in keeping with special customer requirements.

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued on Wednesday and Thursday)

10:30

Foreign-object damage-resistant materials in aircraft tires

Dr Abilash Kumar Nair
Senior materials development engineer
Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Limited
UK
Sheheryar Butt
Commodity sourcing manager
Dunlop Aircraft Tyres
UK
The performance of aircraft tires on the ground is critical for passenger safety and comfort. Damage caused by foreign objects is a common reason for premature tire failure. As aircraft tires operate at high load, speed and pressure, they can be damaged by foreign objects on the runways or by damaged pavement surfaces. This paper investigates foreign-object damage (FOD) resistance of aircraft tires using different textile materials and constructions. Cut and puncture resistance of different textile materials and an in-house-developed FOD test as a measure of the cut/puncture resistance of the tires are reported.

10:55

Road hazard impacts – influence and forensic signs on radial tires

Vandy Price
Senior technical advisor
Michelin North America
USA
This presentation summarises existing literature on the topic of road hazard impacts and their potential to cause tread belt detachments. It also brings to light a cache of impact studies never published before, which support the premise that road hazard impacts can lead to tread belt detachments and highlight the forensic evidence these events leave behind. Specifically, the study contains 24 examples of passenger, light truck and commercial truck tires, both new and used, that were tested for endurance, impacted and tested to failure on a road wheel and subsequently inspected. All failed with tread belt detachment at impact point.

11:20

Morphology and nanomechanical characteristics of NR/SBR blends

Darja Klat
Special lab scientist
Continental Reifen Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Tire tread materials are complex rubber compounds generally made of blends of at least two rubbers, fillers and other materials, resulting in multiphase morphology. The properties of these rubber blends are influenced by morphology and microphase characteristics. Experimental techniques are required that can both discriminate between phases in a blend and provide quantitative information about their physical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the effect of polymer ratio and microstructure of SBR on blend morphology and nanomechanical properties of unfilled NR/SBR blends. Nanomechanical properties were determined and compared with macroscopic values obtained by DMA.

11:45

Pot-Hole: integrity index evaluation

Daniel Pugliese
R&D engineer
Pirelli
ITALY
Pot-Hole is an important performance, especially for critical markets such as APAC and LATAM. In this paper we will evaluate an integrity index that states the probability of a tire failing the pot-hole test.

12:10 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Effect of non-linear elasticity to crack growth of tough rubber compound

Dr Yoshihiro Morishita
Material scientist
Bridgestone Corporation
JAPAN
The understanding of the crack-growth phenomena in rubbers is an important issue in industrial applications because the crack growth plays an essential role in the life of the tire. Our home-built experimental setup enables us to measure simultaneously the velocity of crack growth and the crack-tip profile as a function of input tearing energy. We found that filled rubbers show an abrupt and dramatic change in the velocity of crack growth in a narrow range of the tearing energy. We reveal the contribution of non-linear elasticity to the velocity transition on the basis of detailed analysis for kinetics of crack growth and crack-tip shapes.

14:25

Test World – meeting the increasing demand for year-round winter testing

Janne Seurujärvi
Managing director
Test World OY
FINLAND
In 2012 Test World opened the world’s first indoor winter test facilities, allowing vehicle and tire developers to test on natural snow 12 months of the year. Today these facilities are still unique, and vehicle and tire manufacturers alike are demanding more. Test World continues to innovate to offer new indoor facilities providing winter and summer testing capability all year round. Janne Seurujärvi will discuss how these new facilities have evolved, how Test World is making significant investment to develop its facilities to meet the many different requirements, and how technical challenges have been overcome.

14:50

A non-contacting technique to measure deformations of rolling tires

Dr Mohammad Behroozi
Research fellow
University of Birmingham
UK
The deformations of tires can indicate the magnitude of vertical, lateral and longitudinal loads that are applied to a vehicle. However, measuring these deformations has always been a challenge. Strain gauges usually fail to measure these deformations after a few cycles because of high variations of strain in a rolling tire. Furthermore, these sensors can only provide strain at discrete locations. In the current work, we use Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (3D DIC), a non-contacting technique, to measure the deformation of a tire. A test rig was designed and manufactured to mount a pair of cameras on a car wheel. The following authors have contributed to the presentation: Mr Aakash Mange, Dr. Javad Baqersad

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Complex characterisation of rubber’s resistance against chip and cut behaviour

Sergio Cavaglieri
Student
Politecnico di Milano
ITALY
This work describes analytical methods to characterise the failure during lab-simulated operation of tires in rough terrain, that show a behaviour known as chip and cut effect. Methodology: experimental observation of damage occurring under realistic tire loading conditions with a new lab instrument that controls/records applied load displacements. Natural rubber (NR), butadiene rubber (BR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and binary rubber blends suitable for tire tread applications are examined. The mechanisms that affect tire tread in service (e.g. dynamic impacts, frictional sliding, abrasion by hard asperities) are discussed. Finally, heat build-up during the chip and cut process has been measured and quantified for given varied rubbers.

16:00

Comparison between four different force and moment testing methods

Anton Albinsson
PhD candidate
Chalmers University of Technology
SWEDEN
Increasing accuracy requirements for handling simulations implies a need for more accurate tire models. Hence, new force and moment testing methods are being investigated to more accurately represent the real-world road surfaces on which the physical vehicle will be tested. This contribution compares force and moment testing results from four different sources: traditional flat-trac measurements, a mobile tire testing rig, vehicle-based tire testing, and measurements from the new tire testing facility Camber Ridge. The contribution mainly focuses on the differences in lateral tire force characteristics, its causes and implications for full-vehicle simulations.

16:25

Measuring real-life rolling resistance using tire liner temperature sensing

Alan Bennetts
Director
Bay Systems
UK
The presentation will discuss using a 65-channel IR pyrometer sensing system to measure bead-to-bead temperature distribution for a variety of tires. The weighted temperature distributions correlate well with standard rolling road laboratory test data. Using this instrumentation on the road allows real-life rolling resistance data to be gathered. The effect of vehicle loading and driving styles can now be used to help improve tire design to improve rolling resistance in use.

16:50

Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis in tire technology

Sahbi Aloui
Application engineer
Netzsch Gabo Instruments GmbH
GERMANY
Netzsch Gabo Instruments has more than 40 years' experience in manufacturing dynamic mechanical thermal analysers for R&D and quality control of rubber composites and tire components. The fully automatic testing systems EPLEXOR 500 N with Autosampler Changer ASC are carefully developed to guarantee customers' essential requirements. The quality and repeatability of the results are high, regardless of the analysis modes. EPLEXOR 500 N provides user-friendly handling and evaluation routines in automatic or manual operation mode. Due to the modular system design, static and dynamic load generation are independent and the working range is up to 60mm.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 2 - Business Strategy (continued)

09:00

Delivering the tire plant of the future today

Dominique Scheider
Strategic account team leader
Rockwell Automation
FRANCE
Tire plants are increasingly connected, thanks to enabling smart technologies and their key unique characteristics. Leading companies are moving towards a digitally transformed enterprise, where information is collected throughout the lifecycle of a product, asset, system or process providing context and insights critical to improving quality and enterprise performance. In addition, new, intelligent, portable technologies provide real-time access to manufacturing data anywhere. This data is presented in the appropriate format, driving fast, critical decision making to meet market and customer demands. In this session, you will gain insight on leveraging contemporary cloud and analytic platforms that will change how you solve issues, manage change, and improve productivity through the digitisation of your operations.

09:25

Latest trends – how to improve productivity in tire manufacturing

Veli-Matti Hakala
Sales manager
Cimcorp
FINLAND
Predicting the future is always difficult. In the rapidly changing global business environment, tire manufacturers face the challenge of improving productivity and meeting increasing customer demands while maintaining sustainability. When change is inevitable, flexible solutions suit most scenarios. Efficient and eco-friendly handling equipment integrated with intelligent software into a seamlessly operating entity enables a reduction in process machinery. At Cimcorp, we believe in modularity. Tire manufacturers don’t need to establish a huge tire plant all at once – they can build new capacity by adding production lines in a modular fashion, step by step, and also enable redundancy by avoiding bottlenecks.

09:50

Transformation of the automotive industry to 2030

Christoph Stürmer
Global lead analyst
PwC Autofacts
GERMANY
The focus of the automotive industry has started to shift from mainly building and selling new cars to business models involving the use and service of vehicles. That is of course no news for the tire industry, but it heralds a revolution in traditional mobility patterns.

10:15

Disruption in the tire industry

Harjeev Kandhari
Chairman and CEO
Zenises
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
The fusion of technical advances, aesthetical beauty, and the balance of precision, safety, customer service, and style.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Outlook for reinforcing fillers and rubber chemicals

Paul Ita
Research analyst
Notch Consulting
USA
The presentation outlines the current demand and future prospects for reinforcing fillers (carbon black and precipitated silica) and rubber chemicals (antioxidants, accelerators, specialities) in tire markets. It covers recent developments, suppliers and market trends.

11:25

Greening carbon black for green tires

Francois Terrade
President
Pro2ACT Management SAS
FRANCE
Carbon black is not considered to be a green industry. What are the challenges? The industry has considerably supported the effort to reduce tire rolling resistance, which is a great step towards minimising vehicles gas consumption. But can this industry evolve towards a greener process, and how? Working on raw materials, the manufacturing process itself and the circular economy will definitely allow the production of greener tires.

11:50

Data collection as the core of modernisation when creating better factories

Aki Nurminen
Material and information flow manager
Black Donuts Engineering
FINLAND
The presentation will discuss: what is data and why it is needed in tire factories; what and who are needed in automation and modernisation projects from different participants; how data can be used in future projects when creating new processes or factories; data and simulation of core processes – impact on material flow and optimisation.

12:15

Regulation paves a one-way street to a dead end

Stephan Rau
Technical director (CTO)
WDK - German Rubber Manufacturers Association
GERMANY
Tires are among the most regulated products in Germany, Europe and the world. Regulations start with the raw materials, continue over use time and do not stop at the end of life of the product. Tires are essential in our world of transport, be it personal or professional, but regulation increasingly restricts production, use, recycling and scrapping of tires. WDK's goal is to create political awareness related to some counterproductive legislative measures, by trying to bring the topics back to a more factual basis.

12:40

Indian Automotive Mission Plan 2026 – challenges and opportunities

Dr Shobha Dhawan
Chairperson
Dawnsun Exim Corp
INDIA
The Indian Automotive Mission Plan 2026 (AMP 26) showcases the high growth potential of the Indian automotive industry and the tire industry. The presentation will discuss the opportunities and challenges for suppliers and ancillary industry caused by this phenomenally high growth in the Indian industry.

13:05 - 14:00

Lunch

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued)

09:00

Tire testing procedures: is it time for a new standard?

Christian Bachmann
Division manager tire technology
fka Forschungsgesellschaftkraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen
GERMANY
Currently all tire and vehicle manufacturers test tires for various purposes. However, many of these test procedures seem based on former technical capabilities that have been overcome today. Standardised procedures like TIME are no longer used as a standard by the data requesters – especially with respect to tire characterisation and tire model parameter identification. The presentation will discuss the question: what are the common requirements for a new test procedure that covers all demands?

09:25

Taking a closer look at wear and abrasion testing

Dr Pamela Martin
Research scientist
TARRC (Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre)
UK
Tire tread wear is a complex phenomenon and notoriously difficult to predict by laboratory tests such as Akron abrasion. Previous work at TARRC has shown that such laboratory tests are unable to replicate well the mechanism of tire wear on the road. This paper will discuss the wear behaviour of rubber compounds subjected to other laboratory abrasion test methods, including the blade abrader and LAT-100. Surface wear characteristics of laboratory-generated test pieces have been examined microscopically to establish how well they resemble on-the-road wear of tires.

09:50

EMSlight – defined shutdown of test wheels

Bernward Maehner
Software engineer
SDS Systemtechnik GmbH
GERMANY
With the Endurance Test Monitoring System EMS, a new application for the Sheet of Light measuring technique was introduced by SDS. The online analysis of starting and growth of separations, cracks, etc. while a tire is running on a test wheel without stopping is an outstanding possibility for R&D. For regular operation, the new EMSlight offers an automated analysis of the tire surface specifically to stop a test run with predefined criteria and thresholds. This solution offers a much better defined and safer stop of a running test compared with actual methods with capacitive sensors or bent wires.

10:15 - 10:35

Break

10:35

Effects of inflation pressure internal variations on the tire rolling and cornering characteristics

Dr Abdul Waheed Awan
Lecturer - mechanical and automotive engineering
Staffordshire University
UK
Tire lateral forces, moments and rolling resistance are important aspects of tire characteristics. They are influenced by tire type and size, vertical load and speed, inflation pressure, road condition and tire design parameters. In this particular research study, the effect of tire inflation pressure’s internal variation within the tire chamber on different tire characteristics is considered. 3D finite-element-based parametric analysis is conducted by taking a 17 inch (225/55/R17) radial car tire for different operating conditions.

11:00

Dissipation-equivalent load control in dynamic fatigue test

Hamid El Maanaoui
Research associate
Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie eV
GERMANY
Under dynamic loads, technical elastomers display hysteresis-induced heating, altering the effective test temperature. To achieve a Wöhler curve based on tests at similar effective temperature, a procedure is presented that adjusts the actual frequency at each load level by taking into account the dissipated energy density from the hysteresis area. We measured the lifetime performance of rubber materials reinforced with 50phr of CB N347. For verification of the concept, infrared measurement was done. With the resulting thermally adjusted Wöhler curves, significant corrections for cycles number were found.

11:25

Mechanical testing with new automated dynamic mechanical analysis method

Hugues Baurier
International sales manager
Metravib
FRANCE
In 2017, Metravib introduced a brand-new concept of mechanical dynamic testing designed to meet the expectations of the tire industry in terms of productivity and data accuracy. The automated DMA brings advanced capabilities to clearly distinguish the mechanical behaviour of various rubber compounds and achieve an impressive testing throughput. This presentation will discuss the capabilities and limitations depending on the various possible test modes: tension, compression and shear, in referring to a significant database analysis.

11:50 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Development of an endurance testing method for high-performance tires

Joan Puig
Tire technology product manager
Applus IDIADA Group
SPAIN
Katech and IDIADA have developed an endurance test method for high-speed tires in laboratory. The main target has been to reproduce in laboratory the same damage suffered by tires that are rolled in circuit driving conditions. An Audi R8 has been driven in racing conditions until the tires showed a drop in their performance. Thanks to chassis calculation tools, the vehicle data acquired enabled evaluation of the loads suffered. Eventually, tire loads observed in circuit driving conditions were converted to tire test rig inputs. Based on this particular exercise, the general tire endurance test method is defined.

14:25

Chemical structure of crosslinks formed during tire ageing

Dr Ed Terrill
Applied research fellow
Akron Rubber Development Laboratory
USA
Aerobic ageing of tire belt-coat compound (during tire oven ageing or normal 'field' service) was found to increase crosslink density. Through a combination of analytical techniques, the linkages formed during aerobic ageing appear to be oxygenated species (sulphoxide, ether, epoxide or peroxide). The extractable sulphur results suggest that the original sulphur network stays intact during ageing (not thermally reverted). However, the sulphur linkages are probably participating in the formation of crosslinks in the form of sulphoxide linkages. At higher temperatures (e.g. oven ageing), the oxygenated linkages rearrange to carbon-carbon linkages with the evolution of CO2, CO and SO2.

14:50

Linear and non-linear rheological measurements on rubber polymers and compounds

Thomas Rauschmann
Business development manager, rubber testing
TA Instruments
GERMANY
The scope of the talk is to evaluate differences in polymer and rubber compounds based on molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and long chain branching using a rubber process analyser (RPA). In the first step, the comparison is done based on a standard frequency sweep using different polymer samples and how differences show up compared with standard tests, namely the Mooney Viscosity and the MDR Cure Curve. In the second step, the linear and non-linear responses from a standard strain sweep experiment are evaluated for a series of polymer grades such as BR with different branching.

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Experimental analysis of structural behaviour of repaired tires with thermography

Umberto Galietti
Prof. PhD
DMMM - Politecnico di Bari
ITALY
Tire repair is an extremely delicate and accurate process that needs careful analysis. With this work, the behaviour of some tire patches, which have the task of compensating for the lack of structural integrity, has been analysed. The possibility to follow the tire’s deformations, due to everyday working on the road stresses, of different patches has been evaluated. In particular, the thermo-mechanical behaviour has been highlighted by means of an IR camera, which revealed extreme sensitivity to the thermal superficial gradient induced by hysteresis phenomena. A comparison with numerical results will also be presented.

16:00

Tire testing innovation: tire dynamic footprint (DFPM)

Dr Mohamed Hassan
President
TMSI LLC
USA
Size, shape and pressure distribution within a tire contact patch are important for the ride qualities and handling characteristics of a vehicle. Tire companies have utilised static load deflection for tire footprint measurements. DFPM enables identification of how the lugs travel into and out of the footprint, pressure distribution across the footprint, and lug stiffness. DFPM performs rolling tests on tires through three measurement devices: multi-axis load cell, glass plate method and Pottinger type probes. The machine is capable of producing data in a plethora of slip, camber, load and inflation conditions over the entirety of the tire’s circumference.

16:25

Understanding the surface contribution to indoor/outdoor tire test data

Jonathan Darab
Operations director
Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation
USA
Surface properties are a major factor in the force and moment generation process of the tire/roadway system. Typically, indoor tire testing is performed on sandpaper, and understanding the differences between sandpaper and asphalt tire test data is critical for translating indoor to outdoor. This presentation will compare the results of indoor testing on various flat-belt surfaces with the results of outdoor roadway testing in dry and wet conditions. Included in the presentation will be results from non-standard indoor tire testing surfaces.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 6 - Tire Manufacturing and Production Developments

09:00

Advances in tire manufacturing for the agro and OTR industry

Massimo Lenti
Technical director
Marangoni Tyre Machinery
ITALY
The paper aims to introduce the new advances in tire manufacturing for the agro and OTR industry; particularly green-tire building machine setup, quality improvement and productivity enhancements. The overview provides solutions to high productivity and quality targets.

09:20

MINDUPLEX: smart calender line 4.0 for a flexible fabric/steel cord rubberising process

Mario Sacchi
R&D and chief technology officer
Comerio Ercole SpA
ITALY
Industry 4.0 is replacing the traditional working paradigm by providing more intelligent manufacturing equipment and environments; it is the trend of the future smart factory. Comerio Ercole is ready to develop special and reliable 4.0 solutions based on different available packages already implemented for innovative tire fabric and steel cord calendering processes. One of the most recent innovations is the MINIDUPLEX, which introduces a flexible mini calender line based on standard modules, enabling high performance for experimental new technologies, short production campaigns, flexibility and reduced layout configuration with space and cost savings.

09:40

Microwaves in the tire industry – benefits, advancements, breakthroughs

Daniel Kettner
Sales director
Romill
CZECH REPUBLIC
The principle of microwave heating doesn't change much over time, but the applications do. Find out about the newest advancements and discover how microwaves can enhance your tire production process. The presentation will cover different approaches, their pros/cons and how they affect the process.

10:00

Future trends in gearbox technology for the rubber industry

Jan Vosatka
Group technical director
Wikov Industry AS
CZECH REPUBLIC
Various driven machines used in the rubber industry represent very demanding applications for the whole powertrain. The gearbox in particular needs to be robust, shock-load resistant, durable, efficient, low maintenance, with good NVH behaviour, and in general work well in terms of CAPEX and OPEX. Power density increase is the key to achieving such requirements. Going from parallel shaft to planetary gearbox design is a logical step in power density increase; Wikov's patented flexible pin technology in Orbi-fleX planetary gear range goes several steps further, and sets a new benchmark for modern planetary gearboxes.

10:20

Anti-tack – the toilet paper of the rubber industry

Howard Kennedy
Vice president
H.L. Blachford Ltd
CANADA
Anti-tack (aka 'anti-adherent', 'slab dip', 'soap') is a key but often neglected corner of tire manufacturing. This presentation will cover the key problems with anti-tack that steal profits in almost every tire plant, and will detail the ways to prevent/fix these problems and improve the bottom line. Key areas covered will include: slurry vs. powder, sticking, housekeeping, foaming, sludging, particle size and crystalline silica. The presentation will also cover how to incorporate anti-tack systems into Industry 4.0 and smart factory automation.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Automatic steel cord inspection system with the new Signal Interpreter

Joachim Manz
Managing director
Roland Electronic GmbH
GERMANY
For reduction of scrap it is mandatory to control the steel cord cutting and splicing process using the Steel Cord Inspection System (SIS). This system, based on a magnetic method, is highly developed and can be operated without almost any user intervention. Assisted by the new Signal Interpreter, the operator will get a more detailed indication, e.g. about the type of fault. So the repair time can be reduced and uptime of the splicing process will increase.

11:20

Actual trends in extrusion of tire components

Dr Gerard Nijman
Head R&D and process technology
Kraussmaffei Berstorff GmbH
GERMANY
One of the most important production steps in tire manufacturing is the extrusion of various tire components. Tire components may contain up to six different rubber compounds and have to fulfil very tight requirements with respect to tolerances. An overview of KraussMaffei Berstorff's extrusion solutions for the tire industry will be presented. The presentation will focus on quality aspects such as process capability, output, extrudate temperature and profile homogeneity.

11:40

New tire mould generation made by metal 3D printing process

Ralf Frohwerk
Global head of business development
SLM Solutions Group AG
GERMANY
SLM Solutions is leading the evolution of metal-based selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing from prototyping to production in the automotive and tire markets. The new metal 3D printer helps to create components in a quicker, more cost-effective and precise way than traditional machining. SLM Solutions continuously improves the productivity of the SLM process to improve the commercial breakeven point vs. conventional production. The tire industry uses SLM's metal 3D printing technology to create innovative new tire tread designs for prototyping, series mass production and the tire retreading process.

12:00

Interoperable sensor communication for digital supported production processes

Andreas Hoell
Technical industry manager
SICK AG
GERMANY
To use the potential of the digitally networked economy, Industry 4.0, the linked sensors, machines and systems must interoperably communicate with each other. The main task is going to be the introduction of the new Industry 4.0 Maturity Index, by examples of quality control and traceability in tire production. Based on today’s typical development levels achieved in the maturity index model, the necessary next steps towards the Industry 4.0 Smart Factory will be showed up. The presentation will end with an outlook on networking beyond the classic supply chain, using new communication and data standards.

12:20

Performance improvement leaps in tire x-ray automatic defect recognition (ADR)

Dr Shaun Immel
Division VP & CTO
Micro-Poise Measurement Systems
USA
Defect detection automation that provides greater consistency in measurement and detection, and enables labour resources to be freed from non-value-added activities and redirected towards providing higher value to the tire company, has existed for several years. This presentation outlines several brand-new defect detection methodologies that take performance to an unprecedented level, enabling companies to remain competitive and increase profitability through efficient final finish processes and improved production quality. Very low alpha and beta detection error rates have been achieved based on in-plant production data. New classes of defects have also been added to this automated x-ray image detection capability.

12:40

Future mill-room systems – technology and features for increasing requirements

Alexander Quast
Manager technical center
HF Mixing Group
GERMANY
The presentation will discuss: the importance of thoughtful engineering of pneumatic material transportation and mixer feeding (silo, day bin, scale, mixer, aspiration); ideas and features for increased mixing line performance with regard to throughput and quality; minimising of environmental pollution, friction losses and downtime by using controlled and monitored dust stop technology; positive effects of thoughtful mill-room component selection (reduction of noise level, odour emissions, ideas and features for an increased mill-room performance, etc.).

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Track and trace for tire and rubber production

Lutz Dittmann
Manager business development
Rea Jet
GERMANY
Product identification through the entire production process provides significant quality improvement. Machine-readable identification codes such as data matrix codes enable end-to-end tracking. Production issues will be detected and eliminated at an early stage and prevent costly scrap production. The presentation provides a detailed view of various product marking processes and how they tie into a track-and-trace solution throughout the entire production chain.

14:20

New features for tire identification in production, warehouse and distribution

Bernhard Lenk
DACH sales manager transportation and logistics
Datalogic Srl
GERMANY
Datalogic has developed a concept based on vision technology called Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 to identify tires in each step of the process from first stage and second stage, to curing, sorting and test machines in production. Furthermore, warehouse management and e-commerce solutions for tire distribution are also using this high-performing reading technology with outstanding read rates to grant very high throughput of thousands of tires a day. Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 grants full transparency of the tracking and tracing of each individual tire from the green tire until to the mounted tire on the end-user's car.

14:40

Because you have no time for downtime!

Ahmet Erdogan
Cold Jet global key account manager tire
Cold Jet BVBA
BELGIUM
A major problem faced by tire manufacturers is mould fouling. Build-up of cured material and mould release agents causes sticking moulds, blemishes and unwanted flash on final parts, making them unusable and requiring press shutdown for cleaning. Traditional cleaning methods can be time consuming and ineffective, damaging moulds and resulting in high labour and material costs. Cold Jet Dry Ice MicroParticle cleaning offers an online or offline, quick and effective way to clean moulds without any damage. Cold Jet's shaved ice MicroParticles can also safely clean the tire mould spring and micro vents, which require a soft but effective cleaning method.

15:00

Digitalisation and standardisation for tire production

Peter Haan
Head of VMM Tire
Siemens AG
GERMANY
Digitalisation and Industry 4.0 require tighter integration of tire production machines in terms of both horizontal and vertical integration. Both types of integration generate many benefits for tire manufacturers, but add effort for the machine builders and the tire manufacturers' maintenance teams. The presentation will show how this effort can be limited by standardisation of hardware and the use of preconfigured standard software blocks.

15:20

Integrated data management through label automation for Industry 4.0

Simon Boddy
Global product manager - industrial markets
Computype
UK
Both the Industrial IoT and Industry 4.0 rely on capturing data at multiple stages of the manufacturing process. Driving this is the need for a secure and efficient product branding and identification network capable of facilitating the increased demand for data interrogation and communication. The speaker will provide an overview of the means by which the integration of automated labelling and barcoding systems support improved data management and communication to support the shift to Industry 4.0.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

Manufacturing operations management for the tire industry

Gian Paolo Di Salvo
Siemens industry manager - MOM for Tires
Siemens
ITALY
Tire manufacturing is a complex process, in which production optimisation and task synchronisation play a vital role. Rising cost pressure and margin reduction make production optimisation more and more critical every day for tire manufacturers. All the available resources need to be allocated in an optimised way, ensuring constant use of all the available equipment; for instance, optimising the productivity of all the curing presses available right now. Attentive monitoring of inefficiencies is also critical. This means careful monitoring of asset availability, their production rate and the quality of outgoing products. Quality is also a must to deliver tires safely to the end user. Compliance with regulations should always be enforced; for instance, granting that the product genealogy can be shown for a tire. Siemens solves all these requirements by offering one manufacturing operations management system (MOM) fully integrated in the Siemens Digital Enterprise vision.

16:20

Innovative automation solutions to enhance tire productivity

Paolo Gamarino
European industry manager automotive parts
SMC Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The new generation of automation systems is digitally integrated, highly energy efficient and fully optimised in weight, size and performances. The presentation will explain the background and technical features of the latest innovations. Application examples with technical data will show the extent of the improvement over traditional systems that are still in use in some manufacturing processes. These innovations will inspire customers’ engineering, R&D and manufacturing in reaching their objectives of better production efficiency.

16:40

Transformative opportunities in production system and machinery design

Paul Gatley
Vice president engineering
Bartell
USA
The impact of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced robotics and additive manufacturing in industrial environments are influencing the future of industrial machine design. The ability to engineer innovative new production machinery systems that can apply machine data, leverage advanced materials and further integrate robotics can allow for new levels of competitive manufacturing to be realised. Through design, integration and implementation of these technologies into modern production machinery and process design, production quality, efficiency and safety will experience a positive transformation.

17:00

Digitised pneumatics is revolutionising tire manufacturing

Ulrich Sixt
Product manager pneumatic opportunities
Festo AG & Co KG
GERMANY
Increased productivity is combined with a high level of standardisation. The presentation shows how the new app-controlled technology is generating savings opportunities. Industry 4.0-capable components like the Festo Motion Terminal VTEM offer the following advantages for the loading and unloading process for tire presses: shorter cycles, i.e. more tires per year, lower energy costs, reduced unplanned downtime, fewer spare parts to keep in stock.

17:20

Edgiq: cutting edge in every way

Jan Grashuis
Vice president global R&D
VMI Group
NETHERLANDS
VMI’s redesigned steel cord cutter, the Edgiq, now stands for an even more high-end cutting process. This talk will explain how the materials of today and those of tomorrow, which will be thinner and contain harder steel cords, can be handled at industrial Cpk levels, proved by field results. The integrated QA measurement system checks the process and provides data for the smart factory.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 7 - Research for Sustainable and Reclaimed Materials

14:00

Model vulcanisation as a tool for investigation of devulcanisation processes

Ulrich Giese
Managing director
German Institute of Rubber Technology
GERMANY
Concerning sustainability and limited raw material resources, effective devulcanisation processes are of high interest for the recycling of used sulphur crosslinked rubbers. Existing methods are not very effective and could not be improved, because of a gap in knowledge about the chemical reactions in detail. One problem is that vulcanided rubbers cannot be analysed in detail concerning the chemical reactions at crosslinks, because of their insolubility. So low molecular model vulcanisates are prepared on the base of dimethylbutene with systematic variation of crosslink density and structure. The reaction and efficiency of devulcanising agents are investigated using GC-MS and HPLC-MS.

14:25

Bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission by ISO evaluation methods

Dr Masao Kunioka
Project leader
ISO/TC45 Japan National Committee in the Japan Rubber Manufacturers Association (JRMA)
JAPAN
We submitted determination methods (ISO/DIS 20463) of bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission from rubber products using ISO 19984-2 related to 'bio-based carbon content'. These methods use a bomb calorimeter based on real combustion of rubber products in a bomb filled with oxygen gas, and measure combustion energy (gross calorific value) and emitted CO2 amount directly. The bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission can be calculated by total amounts and bio-based carbon content of measured rubber product. The rubber products with higher bio-based carbon content are suitable for energy recovery because of higher combustion energy and lower CO2 emission from fossil fuels.

14:50

Sustainable new materials for the tire industry

Glenn Denstaedt
Director, tire and rubber
Lehigh Technologies
USA
A sustainable new generation of materials has been developed for the rubber industry. Recovered tire materials have been successfully functionalised while preserving the polymer backbone. This presentation will provide evidence of functionality on the polymer backbone and demonstrate the breaking of sulphur-sulphur bonds while maintaining high polymer molecular weight. This functional compound may be used at up to 20% over the original formula base in several different rubber compound applications, to generate improvements in key physical and dynamic properties without significant changes in compound viscosity.

15:15

Bringing the circular economy to tires

Serge Klunder
Sales manager
Black Bear Carbon
NETHERLANDS
Black Bear has developed breakthrough technology to create high-quality ‘green’ carbon black that is a highly attractive technical substitute for several conventional furnace and gas carbon blacks used in tires. In addition to providing technical performance benefits, it offers huge positive environmental impact with regard to CO? emission as well as reduced air pollution and extremely low PAH content. In close cooperation with major tire manufacturers, its technical and commercial feasibility has been validated. Main observations and results from these assessments will be shared in this presentation to show how the industry can move to a more sustainable future.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

What tire companies should look for when investing in tyre pyrolysis

Martin von Wolfersdorff
Principal advisor
Wolfersdorff Consulting
GERMANY
The tyre pyrolysis industry was born in the oil crisis in the 1970/80ies as an alternative way to produce fuel. After 3 decades of technical developments, the industry is more and more moving from thermal valorisation into fuels or combustibles to a material valorisation of its products. There now is also interest from the tire makers and some of the top tire companies have already invested in pyrolysis. Others have created R&D projects for closing the tire-to-tire recycling loop. What should tire companies look at when assessing tire pyrolysis for an investment in these technologies? Which are the key considerations for operating a successful tire pyrolysis plant? The presentation will show key performance criteria, best practices and examples of the global top 40 tire pyrolysis companies.

16:25

Water-jet milled rubber powder behaviour in tire compounding

Gábor Kostyál
CEO
AquaJet Ltd
HUNGARY
Rubber recyclates originate from three different sources: mechanical grinding, cryogenic grinding and water-jet milling. The presentation will discuss the key obstacles to the use of these powders as secondary row material in tire manufacturing. The ultimate objectives driving the research on increasing recyclate penetration in tire compounding are analysed. All observations are illustrated with lab tests, and experienced customers' feedback. The effect on physical and rheological parameters are detailed, originating from the properties of the rubber powders tested in various compounds. Accomplishments and future challenges for AquaJet Ltd and the market will be outlined.

16:50

A devulcanisation process to regenerate rubber and revolutionise mould cleaning

Dr Brian Harrison
Chief technology officer
Rubreco
CANADA
Rubreco is a Canadian company that has successfully developed a technology that allows for the devulcanisation of rubber. This is achieved by the opening of the sulphur bonds that provide the integrity necessary for rubber products. This is the only process in the world capable of true devulcanisation, and makes possible the regeneration of devulcanised waste rubber for tire production and other industrial applications. By altering of some of the devulcanisation conditions, this process makes possible the removal of rubber contaminating virtually all surfaces, particularly tire moulds, at a fraction of the price of current mould cleaning methods.

17:15

Sustainability is indispensable in the mixing room

Guido Veit
Business unit manager plastics and rubber plants
Zeppelin System GmbH
GERMANY
Sustainability has reached the mixing rooms. Companies that operate according to the principle of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been proved to be more economical and secure in the future. Examples will show how the demand for sustainability can already be implemented in practice. The examples will not be limited to the mixing room, but the complete lifecycle of the tire and the regeneration of the recycling materials will be shown as an outlook.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 8 - Polymer to Filler Interactions

09:00

Mechanical properties of SBR composite reinforced by cellulose nanofibres

Tomoyuki Sakai
Assistant manager
The Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd
JAPAN
SBR compounds reinforced by TEMPO oxidised cellulose nanofibres, derived from paper pulp instead of petroleum-like traditional carbon black, have been studied. Their 100% tensile stress was two to three times greater than that of those reinforced by the same amount of carbon black. We will discuss how to improve their mechanical properties by examining the bound rubber of the interface between the rubber and cellulose nanofibres.

09:25

Tailoring new fillers by control of particle shape and surface

Dr Luca Giannini
Senior researcher
Pirelli Tyre
ITALY
The challenge in the development of new rubber compounds for high-performance tires is to widen the range of achievable compound thermomechanical properties, surpassing the known trade-offs, e.g. between wet performance and rolling resistance. The invention of new materials offers the chance to achieve such progress. Thanks to research programmes run in cooperation with Politecnico of Milano and CORIMAV consortium with Milano Bicocca University, Pirelli has developed a new family of silica fillers, featuring unique particle shape and tailored surface chemistry, leading to unprecedented rubber compound properties.

09:50

Advanced SSBR and BR: addressing the tire industry challenges?

Dr Sandra Hofmann
Director technology and innovation synthetic rubber
Trinseo Germany GmbH
GERMANY
The ever-higher performance demands of the tire industry require innovative solutions. Advanced SSBR and Nd-BR enable the setting of new benchmarks that meet fuel-efficiency performance requirements while addressing safety standards and CO2 legislation targets. Critical is the understanding of the rubber-filler interaction fundamentals at the molecular, meso and macroscopic scales. By combining understanding of customer challenges with materials science, fast prototyping and focused product development, timely solutions are offered for immediate implementation.

10:15

Nanoparticles in tire application

Dr Arup Saha Deuri
Head R&D
Balkrishna Industries Ltd (BKT)
INDIA
Use of nanoparticles is well known in polymer and also in other industries. However, extensive use of nanoparticles is not evident so far in the tire industry. In this paper, extensive work has been carried out to evaluate several nanomaterials in use in several tire components and reported here. It has been observed that certain nanoparticles are useful to enhance the performance properties of tires. However, the cost-effectiveness of these materials is yet to be established.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Silica-filled ENR compounds for 'green' tire tread compound

Teku Zakwan Zaeimoedin
PhD student
Loughborough University
UK
A previous study has shown that high silica loading in ENR without any coupling agent results in low rubber-filler interaction and lack of adhesion to the rubber matrix, which in turn affects the processability and physical properties of the rubber compound. In this work, with the aim of improving silica-filled ENR compound properties, the effect of X50S silane coupling agent concentration during mixing a silica-filled ENR compound was studied. Silica-filled ENR compounds with 0 to 8phr X50S silane coupling agent were prepared and the rheological and physical properties of the compounds were measured and evaluated.

11:25

Nuvolve engineered polysaccharides application as reinforcing filler in rubber composites

Dr Christian Lenges
Business development biomaterials
DuPont Industrial BioSciences
USA
Rubber compounds are frequently reinforced with fillers to modify static and dynamic as well as mechanical properties, and also physical and thermal properties to improve the performance of rubber products. DuPont is developing enzymatic polymerisation as platform technology to engineer new polysaccharide materials. This process allows for the targeted control of polymer linkage and chain branching as well as polymer morphology through selective choice of process conditions. A first material to be introduced by DuPont based on this technology platform is an alpha-1,3 linked polysaccharide. The application of this material as reinforcing filler in rubber composites will be described in this presentation.

11:50

Dissipation and reinforcement in rubber composites

Mario Beiner
Scientific director
Fraunhofer IMWS
GERMANY
A physical picture that explains different contributions to dissipation and reinforcement consistently in rubber composites based on a filler network incorporating glassy rubber bridges is presented. Data from strain sweeps is analysed using the Kraus model for storage modulus and a modified Kraus equation for loss modulus. The results show that properties of glassy rubber bridges determine the mechanical strength of the filler network. Further, it is demonstrated that these glassy bridges are also of major importance for the dissipation of composites. This is an important finding with relevance for the optimisation of rubber composites for applications like tire treads.

12:15 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Low RR TBR compounds using ENR and surface-modified carbon black

Dr Zachary Combs
Lead scientist
Birla Carbon
USA
Low rolling resistance tires continue to be important for current and future mobility and as a way of meeting government regulations and driving sustainability. This work covers the development of low rolling resistance tread compounds primarily with a combination of a surface-modified carbon black and epoxidised natural rubber. In addition, strategies for manipulating and controlling the carbon black phase distribution in ENR/NR blends is discussed as a method for improving and optimising the viscoelastic performance.

14:25

New S-SBR/Li-BR for eco tire with brand-new technologies

Hiroaki Shindo
Chief researcher
ZS Elastomers
JAPAN
ZS Elastomers has many outstanding technologies associated with S-SBR/Li-BR. These technologies contribute to improvement of rolling resistance, wet grip, abrasion resistance and processability. In this presentation, we will introduce the effect and mechanism of ZSE's technologies, and the products to which those technologies are applied.

14:50

Approaches for anti-static behaviour with low hysteresis in casing compounds

Maurizio Lucchi
European technical service director
Cabot Corporation
ITALY
Tire manufacturers continue to optimise tread and casing compounds to reduce tire rolling resistance. Typical compounding approaches are to use a lower surface area carbon black, reduce carbon black loading, or increase adoption of silica as a reinforcing agent. These methods lead to significantly lower electrical conductivity, which can impair electrostatic charge dissipation, requiring more complex tire designs and construction. This presentation describes how conventional carbon black can strongly impact electrical conductivity and hysteresis, and explores limitations and tradeoffs. Furthermore, it will focus on new ideas and product concepts for improving electrical conductivity while minimising the impact on hysteresis.

15:15

Conducting polymer

Dinanath Sayaji Chavhan
Production assistant manager
Ceat Tyres
INDIA
The presentation will discuss the preparation of conducting polymer by incorporating HDPE in carbon black.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

A new rubber silica for a new market

Dr Jens Kiesewetter
Director applied technology tire and rubber
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH
GERMANY
A novel rubber silica grade was developed and is now being introduced to the tire market. Evonik’s ULTRASIL 7800 GR is tailor-made for large SUV and all-season tires. ULTRASIL 7800 GR ideally balances high compound extrusion throughput due to its favourable processing and high dynamic stiffness on the other side. ULTRASIL 7800 GR mainly targets the US market with its special tire requirements. Consequently, it will be produced in Evonik’s American plants, the capacity of which will be considerably increased by the launch of a new world scale rubber silica plant in 2018.

16:25

Effect of carbon black properties on passenger tire tread performance

Dr Saikat Das Gupta
Chief scientist - vice president
Hasetri
INDIA
Passenger tire tread plays an important role in fine-tuning the 'Magic Triangle', with an extension in RR arm, reduction in wet grip arm and keeping the same length of durability arm. Beside wet grip, in tropical countries dry grip and dry handling also play a crucial role in tire performance. Silica technology has supported tire makers to achieve rolling resistance and wet grip with a limitation in dry grip/handling and durability. With new types of carbon black, one may achieve optimisation of all performance requirements, which will be outlined in this paper.

16:50

The effect of rubber modified silanes on tire tread compounds

Munenao Hirokami
Researcher
Shin-Etsu Chemical Co Ltd
JAPAN
An enhancement of the interaction between silica and SBR/BR is one of the important factors of tire tread compounds. Recently, Shin-Etsu has developed rubber modified silanes that can provide a strong interaction between the silica and the SBR/BR polymers. This interaction is caused by the backbone and the triethoxysilyl groups on the side chain of the polymer silane. As a result, an improvement in fuel efficiency and wet grip is observed. Shin-Etsu will present the evaluation test results, which prove that rubber modified silanes are valuable additives in tire tread compound formulations.

17:15

Challenges in understanding physics and processing of modern tire compounds

Dr Saeid Kheirandish
Processing expert
Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The introduction of highly linear NdBR and functionalised SSBR with varying microstructures has confronted the processing side of tire manufacturing with new challenges. Scientific effort on rheological testing and simulation of tire compound processing evolved and peaked mainly during the second half of the previous century. However, compounds that comprise energy-efficient tires often show puzzling viscoelastic, temperature-dependent behaviour and contradict the general wisdom in this regard. The current paper gives an overview of the highlights of the previous century and the road ahead with regard to physical testing and non-linear rheological modelling of modern tire compounds.

17:40

Solvay high surface silica attributes in tread and non tread

Dr Thomas Chaussée
Global R&I tire manager
Solvay
FRANCE
The use of highly dispersible silica (HDS) in tire treads is a key contribution to the production of fuel-efficient tires, complying with global regulation on tires and vehicle fleets, and minimising the environmental impact of road transportation. This paper focuses on specific attributes of the Solvay HDS high surface area silica portfolio in: severe wear for passenger car and truck, and further RRC improvement via silica introduction in non-tread parts, mainly sidewall.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 9 - New Rubber Compound Additives

09:00

The way to improve wet and ice traction of tires

Dr Hermann-Josef Weidenhaupt
Senior specialist rubber additives business
Lanxess Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Wet and ice traction of tires is very important within the tire industry. The introduction of silica technology for tread compounds of passenger cars has resulted in a significant step forward for these properties. Another way to improve wet and ice traction – and also rolling resistance – is the use of Vulkanol TOF (a phosphorous ester compound) in silica tread formulations. Low dosage of this chemical as an additive or partial replacement of mineral oils has resulted in additional improvements in these tire properties.

09:25

Revisiting the sulphur vulcanisation of rubber

Dr Ali Ansarifar
Senior lecturer
Loughborough University
UK
Sulphenamide accelerators and zinc oxide activator are used in the sulphur cure systems of tires. The use of these chemicals has raised concerns regarding their adverse effect on marine life, human health and the environment. Zinc oxide was functionalised with a sulphenamide accelerator to provide a single material to use as an additive. The effect of the additive on the cure properties of natural rubber was measured. When the cure properties were compared with those of an NR-based tire compound, the optimum cure time was shorter and the rate of cure faster, despite reducing the use of these two curatives.

09:50

Functional additives offer benefit towards advanced tire compounding and processing

Colin Clarke
Director technical sales
Schill + Seilacher
GERMANY
Tire component formulations and associated processing are becoming increasingly complex, with strong emphasis on improved tire performance. The need for additives to maximise efficiency is significant. The trade-off in vulcanised properties for the benefit of easier processing is unacceptable in most cases. Process additives must therefore contribute towards property enhancement alongside process improvement. To achieve this, new classes of additives are being developed. This presentation will explore several applications, such as high dynamic stability tread compound and high-speed extrusion processing, where the use of new additives benefits the processing and contributes towards better tire performance.

10:15

Synthesis and application of calixarene derivatives as tackifier resin in tire applications

Henrik Margharian Pekachaki
R&D compounding engineer
Iran Rubber Industries Research Center and Iran Yasa Tire and Rubber
IRAN
Prof Saeed Taghvaei Ganjali
CEO
Iran Rubber Industries Research Center
IRAN
Regarding the tire industry's need for modern resins, we have developed a new specialty resin with significant properties for various tire applications. The aim of this study was to increase tack and adhesion of rubber to rubber, metal and fabric by means of substitution of calixarene derivatives with Novolak phenolic tackifier resin. The effects of both 'in situ' and 'offline' calixarene polymerisation have also been investigated. Calixarenes are cyclic tetramers with a three-dimensional network, made up of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde units.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Study on the performance of novel long-acting antioxidant

Dr Meng Zhao
R&D engineer
Sennics Co Ltd
CHINA
A novel, environmentally friendly antioxidant with adjustable components was prepared through technical innovation. The new antioxidant, named N3100, is an ideal substitute for DTPD (traditional 3100). As one of its components is different from DTPD and the ratio of its components can be adjusted freely, tire manufacturers could achieve a better long-term anti-ageing effect by adjusting the formulation, and the risk from REACH could also be avoided. When applied to rubber and tires, its ozone ageing, thermal oxidative ageing and mechanical ageing properties are comparable to those of the DTPD.

11:25

Effects of curing systems on layer adhesion strength for silica compounds

Reza Limoochi
Technology director
Khuzestan Tire Company
IRAN
Tests and examinations have shown that the compatibility and harmony between silica and cure systems and adhesion strength between tire layers and particles depend on the best cure systems for each particle with temperature gradient and curing rate index(CRI). These items have powerful effects on tire durability, service and quality and conjunction adhesion strength by interfering with silica in curing reaction.

11:50

Improvement of dynamic fatigue in tire compounds by graphene

Mina Saghaei
R&D engineer
Iran Rubber Industry Engineering & Research Center (RIERCO)
IRAN
Tire blister and circumferential fatigue rupture are the major problems that have been reported in the tire industry. A wide variety of efforts have been made to design compounds with less failure. The introduction of graphene in recent decades has attracted the attention of researchers to apply this superior material to the tire compound. This study investigates the potential application of graphene to reduce heat buildup and improve dynamic fatigue to restrict blistering and rupturing in tires.

12:15

Science of performance process aid for highly loaded silica compounds

Dr Rikki Lamba
Managing director, additives
Polymer Solutions Group
USA
Tire manufacturers are continuously seeking new material technologies that can be leveraged to meet ever-increasing performance requirements for improved fuel economy and wet braking demanded by vehicle manufacturers and tire-buying consumers. Material designers are using very high levels of silica (>90phr) to achieve these objectives, but at a substantial cost to processability. Most process aids also retard cure and degrade performance properties. Focusing on the needs of tire and rubber materials developers and their customers, Flow Polymers has developed SureMix CO2. When used in highly loaded silica tread formulations, it can improve processability while enhancing wet traction and fuel economy.

12:40 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

NXT silane: broad formulation latitude with ease of processing for high-performance tires

Dr Daria Sitnikova
Application development engineer
Momentive Performance Materials
GERMANY
Momentive’s NXT silane, a thiocarboxylate functional silane coupling agent, incorporated into a model passenger tread compound can enable broad formulation latitude with good processability and improved dynamic properties compared with standard sulphur silanes, namely, bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulphide (TESPT) and bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-disulphide (TESPD). A comprehensive set of data will be presented for a range of polymer and silica combinations of high-performance tire compounds. This data set will include lab indicators of improved processability and performance and demonstrate the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating NXT silane.

14:25

Analysis and effect of cobalt on adhesion in steel belt radial tires

Mehdi Kafrashi
Technical expert
Yazd Tire Production Company
IRAN
In this study, the compound synthesis of belt tire radial was characterised by laboratory tests such as MDR, hardness and physical-mechanical properties. Three compound samples with amount of cobalt (0, 1, and 2 phr) were constructed and its effect on intra-surface morphological structure was evaluated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy, radiation of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, these levels show different amounts of adhesion promoters affecting the amount and distribution of cobalt ions (XRD). The effect of cobalt on intra-surface structure and crystallisation and also its correlation showed better adhesion performance.

14:50

Crystex Cure Pro insoluble sulphur – the next generation of insoluble sulphur

Dr Frederick Ignatz-Hoover
Technology fellow
Eastman Chemical Co
USA
Eastman Crystex Cure Pro insoluble sulphur is a highly optimised polymeric sulphur specifically engineered for maximum performance characteristics. Crystex Cure Pro demonstrates a combination of superior critical characteristics for polymeric insoluble sulphur. Enhanced flow, easier handling and superior dispersion characteristics along with improved thermal stability make Crystex Cure Pro a unique performer because it has the important features that tire manufacturers want in insoluble sulphur. Better flow and handling provide considerable convenience and accurate dosing in plant operations, while the improvements in dispersion and thermal stability provide users of Crystex Cure Pro with operational savings opportunities. Plant-scale designed experiments using

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Tire oils with low aromatic content and high solvency

Dr Mika Lahtinen
Global technical manager
Nynas AB
FINLAND
Aromatic oils have been replaced with safe oils in tire compounding in most regions. The next region to introduce legislation will be India or China. Replacement of aromatic oils in non-tread compounds has been fast. Oil content is lower and polymers less polar than in passenger car tires (PCR). The PCR tread compounds contain SBR, and require more polar plasticisers. Furthermore, high glass transition temperature is required to ensure traction. Oils with medium aromatic content (23-35%) are thus favoured. In this paper we discuss the use of tread compound oil with low aromatic content. It is also beneficial for future supply.

16:00

Performance hydrocarbon resins in tread formulations – why use resin?

Dr Mark Arigo
Associate scientist
Eastman Chemical Company
USA
Hydrocarbon resins are low molecular weight polymers with high glass transition temperatures that are used in tire tread formulations to modify the viscoelastic properties. In this presentation, we investigate the impact of resins on tread performance and examine why resins provide unique solutions to balancing wet grip. It is observed that resins modify the compound Tg, producing a significant difference between polymer glass transition (E” peak) and compound glass transition (tan? peak). Resins also increase the breadth of the tan? peak and thus the range of performance possible for the compound, be it WG, RR, wear or snow properties.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 10 - Simulation Modelling and Testing + Conclusions

09:00

Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interactions inside the aquaplaning problem

Dr Corentin Hermange
Research and development engineer
Michelin
FRANCE
A new coupling strategy between smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and finite element (FE) methods is developed and applied to the tire aquaplaning problem. Improvements in the SPH-FE coupling are proposed to achieve efficient simulations of such a complex phenomenon. On the fluid side, the SPH method seems perfectly suited to handle the three complex interfaces of the aquaplaning phenomenon: free-surface, ground/fluid and fluid/tire interfaces. The present 3D SPH-FE model is first validated on various academic test cases before considering the complex problem of the 3D aquaplaning simulations for new and worn tires.

09:25

Need of thermal tire modeling for handling simulation: practical verification

Lorenzo Tonelli
Junior applied research engineer
Pirelli Tyre SpA
ITALY
Many different technical papers take into account the effect of temperature variation on tire cornering and braking properties. It has been proved that the tire forces and moments depend on thermal effects, which in turn depend on lateral and longitudinal slip and on the forces themselves. In this presentation, the typical vehicle handling manoeuvres are analysed to assess how much every manoeuvre is affected by a thermal tire model.

09:50

The latest tire modelling and testing developments at Jaguar Land Rover

Jan Prins
Technical specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
Mateo Gladstone
Specialist engineer tire CAE and modelling
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
The presentation will provide an overview of the latest tire modelling and testing developments at Jaguar Land Rover.

10:15

Advanced methods for tire handling analysis, characterisation and parameterisation with CDTire

Francesco Calabrese
Tire and vehicle dynamics simulation engineer
Fraunhofer-Institut für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik
GERMANY
CDTire/3D is a physical 3D mechanical tire model. In the model each functional part of the tire structure – sidewall, belt layers, carcass, cap ply – is described by means of shell formulation. The thread is described with an advanced brush model. This presentation will show how to analyse typical tire handling behaviour by using simulation; how to explain the connection between handling property and the tire structure; how it is possible to parameterise CDTire/3D for handling; what is the minimum requirement of measurements needed for complete characterisation.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Analytical modelling of sliding friction: effect of load on friction

Sunish Vadakkeveetil
Graduate student
Virginia Polytechnic Institution and State University
USA
Estimation of friction in the rubber-road contact interface plays an important role in predicting and optimising tire and vehicle performance. Development of physics-based rubber friction models has gathered interest among researchers and industries for the past three decades. In the present study, a friction model of rubber block sliding on rough substrate is investigated based on Persson and Kluppel’s models. The effect of load on friction and contact mechanics parameters of the model is discussed. Comparison of model results with experimental data obtained using a dynamic friction tester developed at CenTiRe has shown that normal load should be included in the friction model.

11:25

Tire rubber extrusion experiment and simulations with wall slip

Tijmen Mateboer
Researcher
Professorship for Polymer Engineering of Windesheim University of Applied Sciences
NETHERLANDS
Extrudate swell of filled rubbers is common in the tire industry. Extrudate swell is a complicating factor in the die design. Numerical simulation of extrudate swell may benefit the die design process. Wall slip of rubber along the die wall is a relevant parameter for the flow behaviour and the extrusion simulation. Extrudate swell simulations and experiments have been performed with a viscoelastic tire rubber compound through a circular die. A viscoelastic PTT model was fitted onto rheological data of the rubber. Wall slip was determined with rheological measurements.

11:50

NVH technology as a diagnostic tool in OE development programmes

Subramaniam Loganathan
Senior manager - vehicle dynamics
CEAT Limited
INDIA
Tire development for the Indian automotive market is a challenge, with comfort and fuel efficiency the top priorities. Today, product validation through physical testing is still indispensable, despite the advancement in virtual simulation. Well-developed NVH technology in outdoor vehicle measurement gives more freedom in optimising tire tuning with pattern and construction to meet stringent customer requirements including OEMs. This study probes the impact of pattern, cavity and construction on tire NVH by virtual simulation and validation at vehicle level. It also covers source level noise measurement and unique analysis techniques to quantify tire NVH performance at vehicle level.

12:15

Modelling and replicating real-world surfaces for indoor laboratory testing

Matthew Della Pia
Simulation engineer
Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation
USA
Historically, the precisely controlled environments at indoor tire testing facilities has produced repeatable tire force and moment data with the understanding that the testing surface was not asphalt. Indoor surfaces that are more characteristic of asphalt allow for repeatable test data that is more representative of outdoor testing results. This presentation will demonstrate an analytical approach for transforming outdoor surface roughness scan data into viable surfaces for indoor high-speed flat-belt testing.

12:40 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Simulation of rolling disc with lateral tread pattern

Thirumal Alagu Palanichamy
Doctoral student
Leibniz University
GERMANY
The present methods for the simulation of rolling tires with lateral tread pattern take a lot of computational effort . Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) relative kinematic framework is widely used for rolling tires due to less computational effort. But the disadvantage is that it can only be applied to axi-symmetric tire models. In this work, a coupled ALE - Lagrangian framework is proposed for the simulation of tire model with lateral tread pattern. The tread cap is defined in the Lagrangian manner and the tread base is defined in an ALE relative kinematic framework.

14:25

Finite element modelling of tires for dynamic test

Abubaker Al-Tayawe
PhD researcher
Cranfield University
UK
The presentation discusses the procedures to implement a proper dynamic rubber material card on a finite element model of a tire. Current state-of-the-art models implement an improper representation of rubber behaviour in dynamic scenarios. This presentation looks at the implementation of an equation-based material card, which best defines the viscoelastic dynamic behaviour of rubber at varying strain rates. The material model is supported by material test data, where validations were carried out on the material card. Several static and dynamic scenarios of a tire are modelled using LS-DYNA software: quasi-static compression, dynamic rolling tire, rolling tire over a wedge.

14:50

Three-dimensional characterisation of dynamic tire deflections

Henning Olsson
Director, Research and Development
Calspan
USA
The external shape of a tire changes significantly with operating conditions such as speed, load and inflation pressure. Using dynamic measurements of tire surfaces, a method has been developed to correlate operating conditions with external tire surface deflection. The deflection correlation is used to generate a tire surface model. Analysis of how operating conditions influence the overall tire geometry is presented. Finally, the use of this in full vehicle aerodynamics simulation and its impact on vehicle energy efficiency is discussed.

15:15

Temperature, roughness and wear in real-time advanced MF modelling

Dr Flavio Farroni
Research fellow - CEO and co-founder
University of Naples - MegaRide
ITALY
The physical modelling of tire-road interaction phenomena and the employment of advanced simulation tools developed by UniNa Vehicle Dynamics research group and engineered by its spin-off, MegaRide, allow the prediction and simulation of tire temperature local distribution, tread wear and the adhesive and hysteretic components of friction arising at the road interface. The cooperation among such physical models allows the level of realism and reliability provided by a simulation system to be increased, predicting, in the proposed case study, the modifications that the effects of the cited phenomena will cause to the parameters of an innovative methodology to implement Pacejka's MF formulation.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 11 - Tire Material Research - University of Twente

09:00

Influence of resins on in-rubber properties of an elastomeric compound

Neven Markovic
PDEng
University of Twente, The Netherlands
NETHERLANDS
Resins are widely used in adhesives due to their ability to improve tack. For the same reason they are applied in rubber compounds. These resins are low-molecular-weight oligomers produced from a natural or synthetic source of monomers. When applied in a rubber formulation they can replace the oil and act as a processing aid. The solubility of both a rubber and a resin are major factors that determine the behaviour of a rubber-resin blend. Besides solubility, the structure molecular-weight and concentration of the resin have the highest influence on a rubber. These influences will be covered during the presentation.

09:25

Dispersion control during mixing of silica-filled tread compounds

Ayush Kharel
PDEng
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Rheology of silica-reinforced compounds is affected by the filler interaction with the elastomer. The process of mixing silica into the elastomer determines the interaction between them and influences their extrudability and rheological properties. A mechanical breakdown of silica agglomerates as well as a chemical reaction between silica and silane have to occur during mixing. Therefore, it is a challenge to maintain a consistent level of interaction in every batch. The Payne effect is an indicator of inter-particle interaction. This project aims to design a predictive mixing control method by mapping the evolution of Payne effect with mixing parameters.

09:50

Prediction of in-rubber dispersibility of silica by analytical methods

Fabian Grunert
PhD student
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Precipitated silica in combination with bi-functional organosilanes are among the most important fillers for passenger car tire tread compounds. Still, the challenge is to reach a good dispersion and distribution of the silica inside the rubber matrix. It is known that the compound formulation and mixing process influence the processing and dispersion behaviour. Moreover, silica itself has a great impact on the in-rubber dispersion quality and it is crucial to be aware of the typical analytical parameters and their impact on the dispersibility. Therefore, different approaches were investigated to predict the in-rubber dispersibility of silica by new analytical methods.

10:15

Alternative to diphenylguanidine in silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

Chesidi Hayichelaeh
PhD student
University of Twente (The Netherlands)
THAILAND
Diphenylguanidine (DPG) is widely used in silica-reinforced rubber compounds to enhance the silanisation and vulcanisation reactions. Due to toxic aniline liberated by DPG under high processing temperature, safe alternatives are required. This work investigates octadecylamine (OCT) as a DPG alternative in silica-filled natural rubber compounds. The compound properties are comparatively assessed by taking the ones with DPG and without amine as references. Kinetics of the silanisation reaction between silica and silane in the presence of amines are studied based on model compounds. The use of OCT promotes interfacial compatibility combining chemical and physical interactions, resulting in good performance.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Influence of network structure on elastomer properties

Anke Blume
University professor
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Considerable attention is paid to the influence of crosslink density and crosslink structures on the behaviour of elastomers. A very important parameter seems to be underestimated: the modifications to the polymer chains by curatives, formed by sulphur and fragments of accelerators. The present paper intends to draw attention to this important contribution to performance of spatial networks. The emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber (E-SBR) samples, cured with tetramethylthiuram disulphide and sulphur (TMTD/S8), and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate with sulphur (ZDT/S8), were studied.

11:25

Silica-NR masterbatch as an alternative for tire raw materials

Dr Wisut Kaewsakul
Assistant professor
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
In the conventional mixing of silica-filled rubber compounds, the silica and silane coupling agent are added separately into the mixer during the second sequence, which is the most crucial step in achieving adequate hydrophobation on silica surface. However, there are drawbacks including difficult mixing control, long cycle time as well as high energy input and cost. In this study, alternative approaches are made by utilising pre-silanised silica and silica-NR masterbatch. Positive results are found in the latter case as it essentially overcomes the hassles encountered in conventional mixing, while slightly improving reinforcement efficiency.

11:50

Reactivity study of mercapto-silane and sulphide-silane with polymer

Masaki Sato
PhD student
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Mercapto-silanes enable an improved silica dispersion state compared with sulphide-silanes in tire tread compounds. However, they also have a tendency to cause processing difficulties. Therefore, as a possible influencing factor for the above-described phenomena, the silane/rubber reactions were investigated in a model system using alkenes instead of polymers together with silanes. The results reveal that mercapto-silanes and sulphide-silanes react in different ways depending on the type of double bond. Based on the findings, the reason for the different properties in silica-filled compounds with various polymer/silane combinations will be explained.

12:15 - 14:00

Lunch

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 12 - Young Scientist Developments

14:00

Fatigue modelling of cord-rubber composites

Niraj Kumar Jha
PhD student
Leibniz University
GERMANY
Modelling of damage in elastomeric composite structures nowadays is a subject of growing interest mainly because of the high demand in automotive industries. Such structures are, for example, tires, hoses and air springs. This presentation will focus on accurate fatigue damage modelling for a cord-reinforced rubber structure. The potential failure modes e.g. cord-rubber interface debonding, delamination, matrix damage or interacting damage mechanisms will be explained. Also, numerical methods to assess durability will be explained with regard to the implementation in commercial ?nite element code ABAQUS.

14:25

Cavitation damage in tire rubber materials investigated by computed tomography

Eric Euchler
PhD student
Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung Dresden eV
GERMANY
Under constraint conditions, multi-axial stress states arise in rubber materials under tensile loading. They are responsible for cavitation phenomena as first steps in the failure process of the whole material. Micro computed tomography (µCT) enables the characterisation of the formation of reversible as well as irreversible cavities and their merging in the case of failure. By synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering it is possible to investigate initial stages of the damage process. The results of these investigations can be compared and discussed, considering results achieved by dilatometry tests.

14:50

Multi-physical approach for tire contact and wear mechanisms modelling

Aleksandr Sakhnevych
PhD student
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
ITALY
The experience gained through the development of physical models and continuous research into advanced and innovative testing procedures could finally lead to full characterisation and understanding of the tire thermodynamic behaviour. Taking into account the temperature and wear influence on both the tire structural and compound viscoelastic characteristics, expressed respectively in terms of interaction stiffness and performance level, as a function of tread temperature, sliding speed, road granularity and load history, the approach to a tire complete dynamic analysis and modelling can therefore be necessarily multi-physical.

15:15

Model-based sensitivity analysis of tire transient handling performance

Pavel Sarkisov
PhD candidate (former)
TU Dresden (former)
GERMANY
The paper represents an analysis of the effect chain between tire structural parameters and its transient handling performance. Eight tire parameters were considered (e.g. carcass lateral stiffness, tire dimension) and five model properties (e.g. number of brush elements). Handling performance was analysed with the help of seven criteria of tire performance (e.g. cornering stiffness, bore stiffness) and seven criteria of tire state (e.g. carcass deflection). This approach may be helpful for estimation of tire properties in the early phase of the vehicle development process as well as for tire model development.

Day 2: Wednesday 21 February

Stream 2 - Business Strategy (continued)

09:00

Delivering the tire plant of the future today

Dominique Scheider
Strategic account team leader
Rockwell Automation
FRANCE
Tire plants are increasingly connected, thanks to enabling smart technologies and their key unique characteristics. Leading companies are moving towards a digitally transformed enterprise, where information is collected throughout the lifecycle of a product, asset, system or process providing context and insights critical to improving quality and enterprise performance. In addition, new, intelligent, portable technologies provide real-time access to manufacturing data anywhere. This data is presented in the appropriate format, driving fast, critical decision making to meet market and customer demands. In this session, you will gain insight on leveraging contemporary cloud and analytic platforms that will change how you solve issues, manage change, and improve productivity through the digitisation of your operations.

09:25

Latest trends – how to improve productivity in tire manufacturing

Veli-Matti Hakala
Sales manager
Cimcorp
FINLAND
Predicting the future is always difficult. In the rapidly changing global business environment, tire manufacturers face the challenge of improving productivity and meeting increasing customer demands while maintaining sustainability. When change is inevitable, flexible solutions suit most scenarios. Efficient and eco-friendly handling equipment integrated with intelligent software into a seamlessly operating entity enables a reduction in process machinery. At Cimcorp, we believe in modularity. Tire manufacturers don’t need to establish a huge tire plant all at once – they can build new capacity by adding production lines in a modular fashion, step by step, and also enable redundancy by avoiding bottlenecks.

09:50

Transformation of the automotive industry to 2030

Christoph Stürmer
Global lead analyst
PwC Autofacts
GERMANY
The focus of the automotive industry has started to shift from mainly building and selling new cars to business models involving the use and service of vehicles. That is of course no news for the tire industry, but it heralds a revolution in traditional mobility patterns.

10:15

Disruption in the tire industry

Harjeev Kandhari
Chairman and CEO
Zenises
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
The fusion of technical advances, aesthetical beauty, and the balance of precision, safety, customer service, and style.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Outlook for reinforcing fillers and rubber chemicals

Paul Ita
Research analyst
Notch Consulting
USA
The presentation outlines the current demand and future prospects for reinforcing fillers (carbon black and precipitated silica) and rubber chemicals (antioxidants, accelerators, specialities) in tire markets. It covers recent developments, suppliers and market trends.

11:25

Greening carbon black for green tires

Francois Terrade
President
Pro2ACT Management SAS
FRANCE
Carbon black is not considered to be a green industry. What are the challenges? The industry has considerably supported the effort to reduce tire rolling resistance, which is a great step towards minimising vehicles gas consumption. But can this industry evolve towards a greener process, and how? Working on raw materials, the manufacturing process itself and the circular economy will definitely allow the production of greener tires.

11:50

Data collection as the core of modernisation when creating better factories

Aki Nurminen
Material and information flow manager
Black Donuts Engineering
FINLAND
The presentation will discuss: what is data and why it is needed in tire factories; what and who are needed in automation and modernisation projects from different participants; how data can be used in future projects when creating new processes or factories; data and simulation of core processes – impact on material flow and optimisation.

12:15

Regulation paves a one-way street to a dead end

Stephan Rau
Technical director (CTO)
WDK - German Rubber Manufacturers Association
GERMANY
Tires are among the most regulated products in Germany, Europe and the world. Regulations start with the raw materials, continue over use time and do not stop at the end of life of the product. Tires are essential in our world of transport, be it personal or professional, but regulation increasingly restricts production, use, recycling and scrapping of tires. WDK's goal is to create political awareness related to some counterproductive legislative measures, by trying to bring the topics back to a more factual basis.

12:40

Indian Automotive Mission Plan 2026 – challenges and opportunities

Dr Shobha Dhawan
Chairperson
Dawnsun Exim Corp
INDIA
The Indian Automotive Mission Plan 2026 (AMP 26) showcases the high growth potential of the Indian automotive industry and the tire industry. The presentation will discuss the opportunities and challenges for suppliers and ancillary industry caused by this phenomenally high growth in the Indian industry.

13:05 - 14:00

Lunch

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued)

09:00

Tire testing procedures: is it time for a new standard?

Christian Bachmann
Division manager tire technology
fka Forschungsgesellschaftkraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen
GERMANY
Currently all tire and vehicle manufacturers test tires for various purposes. However, many of these test procedures seem based on former technical capabilities that have been overcome today. Standardised procedures like TIME are no longer used as a standard by the data requesters – especially with respect to tire characterisation and tire model parameter identification. The presentation will discuss the question: what are the common requirements for a new test procedure that covers all demands?

09:25

Taking a closer look at wear and abrasion testing

Dr Pamela Martin
Research scientist
TARRC (Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre)
UK
Tire tread wear is a complex phenomenon and notoriously difficult to predict by laboratory tests such as Akron abrasion. Previous work at TARRC has shown that such laboratory tests are unable to replicate well the mechanism of tire wear on the road. This paper will discuss the wear behaviour of rubber compounds subjected to other laboratory abrasion test methods, including the blade abrader and LAT-100. Surface wear characteristics of laboratory-generated test pieces have been examined microscopically to establish how well they resemble on-the-road wear of tires.

09:50

EMSlight – defined shutdown of test wheels

Bernward Maehner
Software engineer
SDS Systemtechnik GmbH
GERMANY
With the Endurance Test Monitoring System EMS, a new application for the Sheet of Light measuring technique was introduced by SDS. The online analysis of starting and growth of separations, cracks, etc. while a tire is running on a test wheel without stopping is an outstanding possibility for R&D. For regular operation, the new EMSlight offers an automated analysis of the tire surface specifically to stop a test run with predefined criteria and thresholds. This solution offers a much better defined and safer stop of a running test compared with actual methods with capacitive sensors or bent wires.

10:15 - 10:35

Break

10:35

Effects of inflation pressure internal variations on the tire rolling and cornering characteristics

Dr Abdul Waheed Awan
Lecturer - mechanical and automotive engineering
Staffordshire University
UK
Tire lateral forces, moments and rolling resistance are important aspects of tire characteristics. They are influenced by tire type and size, vertical load and speed, inflation pressure, road condition and tire design parameters. In this particular research study, the effect of tire inflation pressure’s internal variation within the tire chamber on different tire characteristics is considered. 3D finite-element-based parametric analysis is conducted by taking a 17 inch (225/55/R17) radial car tire for different operating conditions.

11:00

Dissipation-equivalent load control in dynamic fatigue test

Hamid El Maanaoui
Research associate
Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie eV
GERMANY
Under dynamic loads, technical elastomers display hysteresis-induced heating, altering the effective test temperature. To achieve a Wöhler curve based on tests at similar effective temperature, a procedure is presented that adjusts the actual frequency at each load level by taking into account the dissipated energy density from the hysteresis area. We measured the lifetime performance of rubber materials reinforced with 50phr of CB N347. For verification of the concept, infrared measurement was done. With the resulting thermally adjusted Wöhler curves, significant corrections for cycles number were found.

11:25

Mechanical testing with new automated dynamic mechanical analysis method

Hugues Baurier
International sales manager
Metravib
FRANCE
In 2017, Metravib introduced a brand-new concept of mechanical dynamic testing designed to meet the expectations of the tire industry in terms of productivity and data accuracy. The automated DMA brings advanced capabilities to clearly distinguish the mechanical behaviour of various rubber compounds and achieve an impressive testing throughput. This presentation will discuss the capabilities and limitations depending on the various possible test modes: tension, compression and shear, in referring to a significant database analysis.

11:50 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Development of an endurance testing method for high-performance tires

Joan Puig
Tire technology product manager
Applus IDIADA Group
SPAIN
Katech and IDIADA have developed an endurance test method for high-speed tires in laboratory. The main target has been to reproduce in laboratory the same damage suffered by tires that are rolled in circuit driving conditions. An Audi R8 has been driven in racing conditions until the tires showed a drop in their performance. Thanks to chassis calculation tools, the vehicle data acquired enabled evaluation of the loads suffered. Eventually, tire loads observed in circuit driving conditions were converted to tire test rig inputs. Based on this particular exercise, the general tire endurance test method is defined.

14:25

Chemical structure of crosslinks formed during tire ageing

Dr Ed Terrill
Applied research fellow
Akron Rubber Development Laboratory
USA
Aerobic ageing of tire belt-coat compound (during tire oven ageing or normal 'field' service) was found to increase crosslink density. Through a combination of analytical techniques, the linkages formed during aerobic ageing appear to be oxygenated species (sulphoxide, ether, epoxide or peroxide). The extractable sulphur results suggest that the original sulphur network stays intact during ageing (not thermally reverted). However, the sulphur linkages are probably participating in the formation of crosslinks in the form of sulphoxide linkages. At higher temperatures (e.g. oven ageing), the oxygenated linkages rearrange to carbon-carbon linkages with the evolution of CO2, CO and SO2.

14:50

Linear and non-linear rheological measurements on rubber polymers and compounds

Thomas Rauschmann
Business development manager, rubber testing
TA Instruments
GERMANY
The scope of the talk is to evaluate differences in polymer and rubber compounds based on molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and long chain branching using a rubber process analyser (RPA). In the first step, the comparison is done based on a standard frequency sweep using different polymer samples and how differences show up compared with standard tests, namely the Mooney Viscosity and the MDR Cure Curve. In the second step, the linear and non-linear responses from a standard strain sweep experiment are evaluated for a series of polymer grades such as BR with different branching.

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Experimental analysis of structural behaviour of repaired tires with thermography

Umberto Galietti
Prof. PhD
DMMM - Politecnico di Bari
ITALY
Tire repair is an extremely delicate and accurate process that needs careful analysis. With this work, the behaviour of some tire patches, which have the task of compensating for the lack of structural integrity, has been analysed. The possibility to follow the tire’s deformations, due to everyday working on the road stresses, of different patches has been evaluated. In particular, the thermo-mechanical behaviour has been highlighted by means of an IR camera, which revealed extreme sensitivity to the thermal superficial gradient induced by hysteresis phenomena. A comparison with numerical results will also be presented.

16:00

Tire testing innovation: tire dynamic footprint (DFPM)

Dr Mohamed Hassan
President
TMSI LLC
USA
Size, shape and pressure distribution within a tire contact patch are important for the ride qualities and handling characteristics of a vehicle. Tire companies have utilised static load deflection for tire footprint measurements. DFPM enables identification of how the lugs travel into and out of the footprint, pressure distribution across the footprint, and lug stiffness. DFPM performs rolling tests on tires through three measurement devices: multi-axis load cell, glass plate method and Pottinger type probes. The machine is capable of producing data in a plethora of slip, camber, load and inflation conditions over the entirety of the tire’s circumference.

16:25

Understanding the surface contribution to indoor/outdoor tire test data

Jonathan Darab
Operations director
Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation
USA
Surface properties are a major factor in the force and moment generation process of the tire/roadway system. Typically, indoor tire testing is performed on sandpaper, and understanding the differences between sandpaper and asphalt tire test data is critical for translating indoor to outdoor. This presentation will compare the results of indoor testing on various flat-belt surfaces with the results of outdoor roadway testing in dry and wet conditions. Included in the presentation will be results from non-standard indoor tire testing surfaces.

Stream 6 - Tire Manufacturing and Production Developments

09:00

Advances in tire manufacturing for the agro and OTR industry

Massimo Lenti
Technical director
Marangoni Tyre Machinery
ITALY
The paper aims to introduce the new advances in tire manufacturing for the agro and OTR industry; particularly green-tire building machine setup, quality improvement and productivity enhancements. The overview provides solutions to high productivity and quality targets.

09:20

MINDUPLEX: smart calender line 4.0 for a flexible fabric/steel cord rubberising process

Mario Sacchi
R&D and chief technology officer
Comerio Ercole SpA
ITALY
Industry 4.0 is replacing the traditional working paradigm by providing more intelligent manufacturing equipment and environments; it is the trend of the future smart factory. Comerio Ercole is ready to develop special and reliable 4.0 solutions based on different available packages already implemented for innovative tire fabric and steel cord calendering processes. One of the most recent innovations is the MINIDUPLEX, which introduces a flexible mini calender line based on standard modules, enabling high performance for experimental new technologies, short production campaigns, flexibility and reduced layout configuration with space and cost savings.

09:40

Microwaves in the tire industry – benefits, advancements, breakthroughs

Daniel Kettner
Sales director
Romill
CZECH REPUBLIC
The principle of microwave heating doesn't change much over time, but the applications do. Find out about the newest advancements and discover how microwaves can enhance your tire production process. The presentation will cover different approaches, their pros/cons and how they affect the process.

10:00

Future trends in gearbox technology for the rubber industry

Jan Vosatka
Group technical director
Wikov Industry AS
CZECH REPUBLIC
Various driven machines used in the rubber industry represent very demanding applications for the whole powertrain. The gearbox in particular needs to be robust, shock-load resistant, durable, efficient, low maintenance, with good NVH behaviour, and in general work well in terms of CAPEX and OPEX. Power density increase is the key to achieving such requirements. Going from parallel shaft to planetary gearbox design is a logical step in power density increase; Wikov's patented flexible pin technology in Orbi-fleX planetary gear range goes several steps further, and sets a new benchmark for modern planetary gearboxes.

10:20

Anti-tack – the toilet paper of the rubber industry

Howard Kennedy
Vice president
H.L. Blachford Ltd
CANADA
Anti-tack (aka 'anti-adherent', 'slab dip', 'soap') is a key but often neglected corner of tire manufacturing. This presentation will cover the key problems with anti-tack that steal profits in almost every tire plant, and will detail the ways to prevent/fix these problems and improve the bottom line. Key areas covered will include: slurry vs. powder, sticking, housekeeping, foaming, sludging, particle size and crystalline silica. The presentation will also cover how to incorporate anti-tack systems into Industry 4.0 and smart factory automation.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Automatic steel cord inspection system with the new Signal Interpreter

Joachim Manz
Managing director
Roland Electronic GmbH
GERMANY
For reduction of scrap it is mandatory to control the steel cord cutting and splicing process using the Steel Cord Inspection System (SIS). This system, based on a magnetic method, is highly developed and can be operated without almost any user intervention. Assisted by the new Signal Interpreter, the operator will get a more detailed indication, e.g. about the type of fault. So the repair time can be reduced and uptime of the splicing process will increase.

11:20

Actual trends in extrusion of tire components

Dr Gerard Nijman
Head R&D and process technology
Kraussmaffei Berstorff GmbH
GERMANY
One of the most important production steps in tire manufacturing is the extrusion of various tire components. Tire components may contain up to six different rubber compounds and have to fulfil very tight requirements with respect to tolerances. An overview of KraussMaffei Berstorff's extrusion solutions for the tire industry will be presented. The presentation will focus on quality aspects such as process capability, output, extrudate temperature and profile homogeneity.

11:40

New tire mould generation made by metal 3D printing process

Ralf Frohwerk
Global head of business development
SLM Solutions Group AG
GERMANY
SLM Solutions is leading the evolution of metal-based selective laser melting (SLM) manufacturing from prototyping to production in the automotive and tire markets. The new metal 3D printer helps to create components in a quicker, more cost-effective and precise way than traditional machining. SLM Solutions continuously improves the productivity of the SLM process to improve the commercial breakeven point vs. conventional production. The tire industry uses SLM's metal 3D printing technology to create innovative new tire tread designs for prototyping, series mass production and the tire retreading process.

12:00

Interoperable sensor communication for digital supported production processes

Andreas Hoell
Technical industry manager
SICK AG
GERMANY
To use the potential of the digitally networked economy, Industry 4.0, the linked sensors, machines and systems must interoperably communicate with each other. The main task is going to be the introduction of the new Industry 4.0 Maturity Index, by examples of quality control and traceability in tire production. Based on today’s typical development levels achieved in the maturity index model, the necessary next steps towards the Industry 4.0 Smart Factory will be showed up. The presentation will end with an outlook on networking beyond the classic supply chain, using new communication and data standards.

12:20

Performance improvement leaps in tire x-ray automatic defect recognition (ADR)

Dr Shaun Immel
Division VP & CTO
Micro-Poise Measurement Systems
USA
Defect detection automation that provides greater consistency in measurement and detection, and enables labour resources to be freed from non-value-added activities and redirected towards providing higher value to the tire company, has existed for several years. This presentation outlines several brand-new defect detection methodologies that take performance to an unprecedented level, enabling companies to remain competitive and increase profitability through efficient final finish processes and improved production quality. Very low alpha and beta detection error rates have been achieved based on in-plant production data. New classes of defects have also been added to this automated x-ray image detection capability.

12:40

Future mill-room systems – technology and features for increasing requirements

Alexander Quast
Manager technical center
HF Mixing Group
GERMANY
The presentation will discuss: the importance of thoughtful engineering of pneumatic material transportation and mixer feeding (silo, day bin, scale, mixer, aspiration); ideas and features for increased mixing line performance with regard to throughput and quality; minimising of environmental pollution, friction losses and downtime by using controlled and monitored dust stop technology; positive effects of thoughtful mill-room component selection (reduction of noise level, odour emissions, ideas and features for an increased mill-room performance, etc.).

13:00 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Track and trace for tire and rubber production

Lutz Dittmann
Manager business development
Rea Jet
GERMANY
Product identification through the entire production process provides significant quality improvement. Machine-readable identification codes such as data matrix codes enable end-to-end tracking. Production issues will be detected and eliminated at an early stage and prevent costly scrap production. The presentation provides a detailed view of various product marking processes and how they tie into a track-and-trace solution throughout the entire production chain.

14:20

New features for tire identification in production, warehouse and distribution

Bernhard Lenk
DACH sales manager transportation and logistics
Datalogic Srl
GERMANY
Datalogic has developed a concept based on vision technology called Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 to identify tires in each step of the process from first stage and second stage, to curing, sorting and test machines in production. Furthermore, warehouse management and e-commerce solutions for tire distribution are also using this high-performing reading technology with outstanding read rates to grant very high throughput of thousands of tires a day. Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 grants full transparency of the tracking and tracing of each individual tire from the green tire until to the mounted tire on the end-user's car.

14:40

Because you have no time for downtime!

Ahmet Erdogan
Cold Jet global key account manager tire
Cold Jet BVBA
BELGIUM
A major problem faced by tire manufacturers is mould fouling. Build-up of cured material and mould release agents causes sticking moulds, blemishes and unwanted flash on final parts, making them unusable and requiring press shutdown for cleaning. Traditional cleaning methods can be time consuming and ineffective, damaging moulds and resulting in high labour and material costs. Cold Jet Dry Ice MicroParticle cleaning offers an online or offline, quick and effective way to clean moulds without any damage. Cold Jet's shaved ice MicroParticles can also safely clean the tire mould spring and micro vents, which require a soft but effective cleaning method.

15:00

Digitalisation and standardisation for tire production

Peter Haan
Head of VMM Tire
Siemens AG
GERMANY
Digitalisation and Industry 4.0 require tighter integration of tire production machines in terms of both horizontal and vertical integration. Both types of integration generate many benefits for tire manufacturers, but add effort for the machine builders and the tire manufacturers' maintenance teams. The presentation will show how this effort can be limited by standardisation of hardware and the use of preconfigured standard software blocks.

15:20

Integrated data management through label automation for Industry 4.0

Simon Boddy
Global product manager - industrial markets
Computype
UK
Both the Industrial IoT and Industry 4.0 rely on capturing data at multiple stages of the manufacturing process. Driving this is the need for a secure and efficient product branding and identification network capable of facilitating the increased demand for data interrogation and communication. The speaker will provide an overview of the means by which the integration of automated labelling and barcoding systems support improved data management and communication to support the shift to Industry 4.0.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

Manufacturing operations management for the tire industry

Gian Paolo Di Salvo
Siemens industry manager - MOM for Tires
Siemens
ITALY
Tire manufacturing is a complex process, in which production optimisation and task synchronisation play a vital role. Rising cost pressure and margin reduction make production optimisation more and more critical every day for tire manufacturers. All the available resources need to be allocated in an optimised way, ensuring constant use of all the available equipment; for instance, optimising the productivity of all the curing presses available right now. Attentive monitoring of inefficiencies is also critical. This means careful monitoring of asset availability, their production rate and the quality of outgoing products. Quality is also a must to deliver tires safely to the end user. Compliance with regulations should always be enforced; for instance, granting that the product genealogy can be shown for a tire. Siemens solves all these requirements by offering one manufacturing operations management system (MOM) fully integrated in the Siemens Digital Enterprise vision.

16:20

Innovative automation solutions to enhance tire productivity

Paolo Gamarino
European industry manager automotive parts
SMC Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The new generation of automation systems is digitally integrated, highly energy efficient and fully optimised in weight, size and performances. The presentation will explain the background and technical features of the latest innovations. Application examples with technical data will show the extent of the improvement over traditional systems that are still in use in some manufacturing processes. These innovations will inspire customers’ engineering, R&D and manufacturing in reaching their objectives of better production efficiency.

16:40

Transformative opportunities in production system and machinery design

Paul Gatley
Vice president engineering
Bartell
USA
The impact of technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced robotics and additive manufacturing in industrial environments are influencing the future of industrial machine design. The ability to engineer innovative new production machinery systems that can apply machine data, leverage advanced materials and further integrate robotics can allow for new levels of competitive manufacturing to be realised. Through design, integration and implementation of these technologies into modern production machinery and process design, production quality, efficiency and safety will experience a positive transformation.

17:00

Digitised pneumatics is revolutionising tire manufacturing

Ulrich Sixt
Product manager pneumatic opportunities
Festo AG & Co KG
GERMANY
Increased productivity is combined with a high level of standardisation. The presentation shows how the new app-controlled technology is generating savings opportunities. Industry 4.0-capable components like the Festo Motion Terminal VTEM offer the following advantages for the loading and unloading process for tire presses: shorter cycles, i.e. more tires per year, lower energy costs, reduced unplanned downtime, fewer spare parts to keep in stock.

17:20

Edgiq: cutting edge in every way

Jan Grashuis
Vice president global R&D
VMI Group
NETHERLANDS
VMI’s redesigned steel cord cutter, the Edgiq, now stands for an even more high-end cutting process. This talk will explain how the materials of today and those of tomorrow, which will be thinner and contain harder steel cords, can be handled at industrial Cpk levels, proved by field results. The integrated QA measurement system checks the process and provides data for the smart factory.

Stream 7 - Research for Sustainable and Reclaimed Materials

14:00

Model vulcanisation as a tool for investigation of devulcanisation processes

Ulrich Giese
Managing director
German Institute of Rubber Technology
GERMANY
Concerning sustainability and limited raw material resources, effective devulcanisation processes are of high interest for the recycling of used sulphur crosslinked rubbers. Existing methods are not very effective and could not be improved, because of a gap in knowledge about the chemical reactions in detail. One problem is that vulcanided rubbers cannot be analysed in detail concerning the chemical reactions at crosslinks, because of their insolubility. So low molecular model vulcanisates are prepared on the base of dimethylbutene with systematic variation of crosslink density and structure. The reaction and efficiency of devulcanising agents are investigated using GC-MS and HPLC-MS.

14:25

Bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission by ISO evaluation methods

Dr Masao Kunioka
Project leader
ISO/TC45 Japan National Committee in the Japan Rubber Manufacturers Association (JRMA)
JAPAN
We submitted determination methods (ISO/DIS 20463) of bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission from rubber products using ISO 19984-2 related to 'bio-based carbon content'. These methods use a bomb calorimeter based on real combustion of rubber products in a bomb filled with oxygen gas, and measure combustion energy (gross calorific value) and emitted CO2 amount directly. The bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission can be calculated by total amounts and bio-based carbon content of measured rubber product. The rubber products with higher bio-based carbon content are suitable for energy recovery because of higher combustion energy and lower CO2 emission from fossil fuels.

14:50

Sustainable new materials for the tire industry

Glenn Denstaedt
Director, tire and rubber
Lehigh Technologies
USA
A sustainable new generation of materials has been developed for the rubber industry. Recovered tire materials have been successfully functionalised while preserving the polymer backbone. This presentation will provide evidence of functionality on the polymer backbone and demonstrate the breaking of sulphur-sulphur bonds while maintaining high polymer molecular weight. This functional compound may be used at up to 20% over the original formula base in several different rubber compound applications, to generate improvements in key physical and dynamic properties without significant changes in compound viscosity.

15:15

Bringing the circular economy to tires

Serge Klunder
Sales manager
Black Bear Carbon
NETHERLANDS
Black Bear has developed breakthrough technology to create high-quality ‘green’ carbon black that is a highly attractive technical substitute for several conventional furnace and gas carbon blacks used in tires. In addition to providing technical performance benefits, it offers huge positive environmental impact with regard to CO? emission as well as reduced air pollution and extremely low PAH content. In close cooperation with major tire manufacturers, its technical and commercial feasibility has been validated. Main observations and results from these assessments will be shared in this presentation to show how the industry can move to a more sustainable future.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

What tire companies should look for when investing in tyre pyrolysis

Martin von Wolfersdorff
Principal advisor
Wolfersdorff Consulting
GERMANY
The tyre pyrolysis industry was born in the oil crisis in the 1970/80ies as an alternative way to produce fuel. After 3 decades of technical developments, the industry is more and more moving from thermal valorisation into fuels or combustibles to a material valorisation of its products. There now is also interest from the tire makers and some of the top tire companies have already invested in pyrolysis. Others have created R&D projects for closing the tire-to-tire recycling loop. What should tire companies look at when assessing tire pyrolysis for an investment in these technologies? Which are the key considerations for operating a successful tire pyrolysis plant? The presentation will show key performance criteria, best practices and examples of the global top 40 tire pyrolysis companies.

16:25

Water-jet milled rubber powder behaviour in tire compounding

Gábor Kostyál
CEO
AquaJet Ltd
HUNGARY
Rubber recyclates originate from three different sources: mechanical grinding, cryogenic grinding and water-jet milling. The presentation will discuss the key obstacles to the use of these powders as secondary row material in tire manufacturing. The ultimate objectives driving the research on increasing recyclate penetration in tire compounding are analysed. All observations are illustrated with lab tests, and experienced customers' feedback. The effect on physical and rheological parameters are detailed, originating from the properties of the rubber powders tested in various compounds. Accomplishments and future challenges for AquaJet Ltd and the market will be outlined.

16:50

A devulcanisation process to regenerate rubber and revolutionise mould cleaning

Dr Brian Harrison
Chief technology officer
Rubreco
CANADA
Rubreco is a Canadian company that has successfully developed a technology that allows for the devulcanisation of rubber. This is achieved by the opening of the sulphur bonds that provide the integrity necessary for rubber products. This is the only process in the world capable of true devulcanisation, and makes possible the regeneration of devulcanised waste rubber for tire production and other industrial applications. By altering of some of the devulcanisation conditions, this process makes possible the removal of rubber contaminating virtually all surfaces, particularly tire moulds, at a fraction of the price of current mould cleaning methods.

17:15

Sustainability is indispensable in the mixing room

Guido Veit
Business unit manager plastics and rubber plants
Zeppelin System GmbH
GERMANY
Sustainability has reached the mixing rooms. Companies that operate according to the principle of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been proved to be more economical and secure in the future. Examples will show how the demand for sustainability can already be implemented in practice. The examples will not be limited to the mixing room, but the complete lifecycle of the tire and the regeneration of the recycling materials will be shown as an outlook.

Stream 8 - Polymer to Filler Interactions

09:00

Mechanical properties of SBR composite reinforced by cellulose nanofibres

Tomoyuki Sakai
Assistant manager
The Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd
JAPAN
SBR compounds reinforced by TEMPO oxidised cellulose nanofibres, derived from paper pulp instead of petroleum-like traditional carbon black, have been studied. Their 100% tensile stress was two to three times greater than that of those reinforced by the same amount of carbon black. We will discuss how to improve their mechanical properties by examining the bound rubber of the interface between the rubber and cellulose nanofibres.

09:25

Tailoring new fillers by control of particle shape and surface

Dr Luca Giannini
Senior researcher
Pirelli Tyre
ITALY
The challenge in the development of new rubber compounds for high-performance tires is to widen the range of achievable compound thermomechanical properties, surpassing the known trade-offs, e.g. between wet performance and rolling resistance. The invention of new materials offers the chance to achieve such progress. Thanks to research programmes run in cooperation with Politecnico of Milano and CORIMAV consortium with Milano Bicocca University, Pirelli has developed a new family of silica fillers, featuring unique particle shape and tailored surface chemistry, leading to unprecedented rubber compound properties.

09:50

Advanced SSBR and BR: addressing the tire industry challenges?

Dr Sandra Hofmann
Director technology and innovation synthetic rubber
Trinseo Germany GmbH
GERMANY
The ever-higher performance demands of the tire industry require innovative solutions. Advanced SSBR and Nd-BR enable the setting of new benchmarks that meet fuel-efficiency performance requirements while addressing safety standards and CO2 legislation targets. Critical is the understanding of the rubber-filler interaction fundamentals at the molecular, meso and macroscopic scales. By combining understanding of customer challenges with materials science, fast prototyping and focused product development, timely solutions are offered for immediate implementation.

10:15

Nanoparticles in tire application

Dr Arup Saha Deuri
Head R&D
Balkrishna Industries Ltd (BKT)
INDIA
Use of nanoparticles is well known in polymer and also in other industries. However, extensive use of nanoparticles is not evident so far in the tire industry. In this paper, extensive work has been carried out to evaluate several nanomaterials in use in several tire components and reported here. It has been observed that certain nanoparticles are useful to enhance the performance properties of tires. However, the cost-effectiveness of these materials is yet to be established.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Silica-filled ENR compounds for 'green' tire tread compound

Teku Zakwan Zaeimoedin
PhD student
Loughborough University
UK
A previous study has shown that high silica loading in ENR without any coupling agent results in low rubber-filler interaction and lack of adhesion to the rubber matrix, which in turn affects the processability and physical properties of the rubber compound. In this work, with the aim of improving silica-filled ENR compound properties, the effect of X50S silane coupling agent concentration during mixing a silica-filled ENR compound was studied. Silica-filled ENR compounds with 0 to 8phr X50S silane coupling agent were prepared and the rheological and physical properties of the compounds were measured and evaluated.

11:25

Nuvolve engineered polysaccharides application as reinforcing filler in rubber composites

Dr Christian Lenges
Business development biomaterials
DuPont Industrial BioSciences
USA
Rubber compounds are frequently reinforced with fillers to modify static and dynamic as well as mechanical properties, and also physical and thermal properties to improve the performance of rubber products. DuPont is developing enzymatic polymerisation as platform technology to engineer new polysaccharide materials. This process allows for the targeted control of polymer linkage and chain branching as well as polymer morphology through selective choice of process conditions. A first material to be introduced by DuPont based on this technology platform is an alpha-1,3 linked polysaccharide. The application of this material as reinforcing filler in rubber composites will be described in this presentation.

11:50

Dissipation and reinforcement in rubber composites

Mario Beiner
Scientific director
Fraunhofer IMWS
GERMANY
A physical picture that explains different contributions to dissipation and reinforcement consistently in rubber composites based on a filler network incorporating glassy rubber bridges is presented. Data from strain sweeps is analysed using the Kraus model for storage modulus and a modified Kraus equation for loss modulus. The results show that properties of glassy rubber bridges determine the mechanical strength of the filler network. Further, it is demonstrated that these glassy bridges are also of major importance for the dissipation of composites. This is an important finding with relevance for the optimisation of rubber composites for applications like tire treads.

12:15 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Low RR TBR compounds using ENR and surface-modified carbon black

Dr Zachary Combs
Lead scientist
Birla Carbon
USA
Low rolling resistance tires continue to be important for current and future mobility and as a way of meeting government regulations and driving sustainability. This work covers the development of low rolling resistance tread compounds primarily with a combination of a surface-modified carbon black and epoxidised natural rubber. In addition, strategies for manipulating and controlling the carbon black phase distribution in ENR/NR blends is discussed as a method for improving and optimising the viscoelastic performance.

14:25

New S-SBR/Li-BR for eco tire with brand-new technologies

Hiroaki Shindo
Chief researcher
ZS Elastomers
JAPAN
ZS Elastomers has many outstanding technologies associated with S-SBR/Li-BR. These technologies contribute to improvement of rolling resistance, wet grip, abrasion resistance and processability. In this presentation, we will introduce the effect and mechanism of ZSE's technologies, and the products to which those technologies are applied.

14:50

Approaches for anti-static behaviour with low hysteresis in casing compounds

Maurizio Lucchi
European technical service director
Cabot Corporation
ITALY
Tire manufacturers continue to optimise tread and casing compounds to reduce tire rolling resistance. Typical compounding approaches are to use a lower surface area carbon black, reduce carbon black loading, or increase adoption of silica as a reinforcing agent. These methods lead to significantly lower electrical conductivity, which can impair electrostatic charge dissipation, requiring more complex tire designs and construction. This presentation describes how conventional carbon black can strongly impact electrical conductivity and hysteresis, and explores limitations and tradeoffs. Furthermore, it will focus on new ideas and product concepts for improving electrical conductivity while minimising the impact on hysteresis.

15:15

Conducting polymer

Dinanath Sayaji Chavhan
Production assistant manager
Ceat Tyres
INDIA
The presentation will discuss the preparation of conducting polymer by incorporating HDPE in carbon black.

15:40 - 16:00

Break

16:00

A new rubber silica for a new market

Dr Jens Kiesewetter
Director applied technology tire and rubber
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH
GERMANY
A novel rubber silica grade was developed and is now being introduced to the tire market. Evonik’s ULTRASIL 7800 GR is tailor-made for large SUV and all-season tires. ULTRASIL 7800 GR ideally balances high compound extrusion throughput due to its favourable processing and high dynamic stiffness on the other side. ULTRASIL 7800 GR mainly targets the US market with its special tire requirements. Consequently, it will be produced in Evonik’s American plants, the capacity of which will be considerably increased by the launch of a new world scale rubber silica plant in 2018.

16:25

Effect of carbon black properties on passenger tire tread performance

Dr Saikat Das Gupta
Chief scientist - vice president
Hasetri
INDIA
Passenger tire tread plays an important role in fine-tuning the 'Magic Triangle', with an extension in RR arm, reduction in wet grip arm and keeping the same length of durability arm. Beside wet grip, in tropical countries dry grip and dry handling also play a crucial role in tire performance. Silica technology has supported tire makers to achieve rolling resistance and wet grip with a limitation in dry grip/handling and durability. With new types of carbon black, one may achieve optimisation of all performance requirements, which will be outlined in this paper.

16:50

The effect of rubber modified silanes on tire tread compounds

Munenao Hirokami
Researcher
Shin-Etsu Chemical Co Ltd
JAPAN
An enhancement of the interaction between silica and SBR/BR is one of the important factors of tire tread compounds. Recently, Shin-Etsu has developed rubber modified silanes that can provide a strong interaction between the silica and the SBR/BR polymers. This interaction is caused by the backbone and the triethoxysilyl groups on the side chain of the polymer silane. As a result, an improvement in fuel efficiency and wet grip is observed. Shin-Etsu will present the evaluation test results, which prove that rubber modified silanes are valuable additives in tire tread compound formulations.

17:15

Challenges in understanding physics and processing of modern tire compounds

Dr Saeid Kheirandish
Processing expert
Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
The introduction of highly linear NdBR and functionalised SSBR with varying microstructures has confronted the processing side of tire manufacturing with new challenges. Scientific effort on rheological testing and simulation of tire compound processing evolved and peaked mainly during the second half of the previous century. However, compounds that comprise energy-efficient tires often show puzzling viscoelastic, temperature-dependent behaviour and contradict the general wisdom in this regard. The current paper gives an overview of the highlights of the previous century and the road ahead with regard to physical testing and non-linear rheological modelling of modern tire compounds.

17:40

Solvay high surface silica attributes in tread and non tread

Dr Thomas Chaussée
Global R&I tire manager
Solvay
FRANCE
The use of highly dispersible silica (HDS) in tire treads is a key contribution to the production of fuel-efficient tires, complying with global regulation on tires and vehicle fleets, and minimising the environmental impact of road transportation. This paper focuses on specific attributes of the Solvay HDS high surface area silica portfolio in: severe wear for passenger car and truck, and further RRC improvement via silica introduction in non-tread parts, mainly sidewall.

Stream 9 - New Rubber Compound Additives

09:00

The way to improve wet and ice traction of tires

Dr Hermann-Josef Weidenhaupt
Senior specialist rubber additives business
Lanxess Deutschland GmbH
GERMANY
Wet and ice traction of tires is very important within the tire industry. The introduction of silica technology for tread compounds of passenger cars has resulted in a significant step forward for these properties. Another way to improve wet and ice traction – and also rolling resistance – is the use of Vulkanol TOF (a phosphorous ester compound) in silica tread formulations. Low dosage of this chemical as an additive or partial replacement of mineral oils has resulted in additional improvements in these tire properties.

09:25

Revisiting the sulphur vulcanisation of rubber

Dr Ali Ansarifar
Senior lecturer
Loughborough University
UK
Sulphenamide accelerators and zinc oxide activator are used in the sulphur cure systems of tires. The use of these chemicals has raised concerns regarding their adverse effect on marine life, human health and the environment. Zinc oxide was functionalised with a sulphenamide accelerator to provide a single material to use as an additive. The effect of the additive on the cure properties of natural rubber was measured. When the cure properties were compared with those of an NR-based tire compound, the optimum cure time was shorter and the rate of cure faster, despite reducing the use of these two curatives.

09:50

Functional additives offer benefit towards advanced tire compounding and processing

Colin Clarke
Director technical sales
Schill + Seilacher
GERMANY
Tire component formulations and associated processing are becoming increasingly complex, with strong emphasis on improved tire performance. The need for additives to maximise efficiency is significant. The trade-off in vulcanised properties for the benefit of easier processing is unacceptable in most cases. Process additives must therefore contribute towards property enhancement alongside process improvement. To achieve this, new classes of additives are being developed. This presentation will explore several applications, such as high dynamic stability tread compound and high-speed extrusion processing, where the use of new additives benefits the processing and contributes towards better tire performance.

10:15

Synthesis and application of calixarene derivatives as tackifier resin in tire applications

Henrik Margharian Pekachaki
R&D compounding engineer
Iran Rubber Industries Research Center and Iran Yasa Tire and Rubber
IRAN
Prof Saeed Taghvaei Ganjali
CEO
Iran Rubber Industries Research Center
IRAN
Regarding the tire industry's need for modern resins, we have developed a new specialty resin with significant properties for various tire applications. The aim of this study was to increase tack and adhesion of rubber to rubber, metal and fabric by means of substitution of calixarene derivatives with Novolak phenolic tackifier resin. The effects of both 'in situ' and 'offline' calixarene polymerisation have also been investigated. Calixarenes are cyclic tetramers with a three-dimensional network, made up of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde units.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Study on the performance of novel long-acting antioxidant

Dr Meng Zhao
R&D engineer
Sennics Co Ltd
CHINA
A novel, environmentally friendly antioxidant with adjustable components was prepared through technical innovation. The new antioxidant, named N3100, is an ideal substitute for DTPD (traditional 3100). As one of its components is different from DTPD and the ratio of its components can be adjusted freely, tire manufacturers could achieve a better long-term anti-ageing effect by adjusting the formulation, and the risk from REACH could also be avoided. When applied to rubber and tires, its ozone ageing, thermal oxidative ageing and mechanical ageing properties are comparable to those of the DTPD.

11:25

Effects of curing systems on layer adhesion strength for silica compounds

Reza Limoochi
Technology director
Khuzestan Tire Company
IRAN
Tests and examinations have shown that the compatibility and harmony between silica and cure systems and adhesion strength between tire layers and particles depend on the best cure systems for each particle with temperature gradient and curing rate index(CRI). These items have powerful effects on tire durability, service and quality and conjunction adhesion strength by interfering with silica in curing reaction.

11:50

Improvement of dynamic fatigue in tire compounds by graphene

Mina Saghaei
R&D engineer
Iran Rubber Industry Engineering & Research Center (RIERCO)
IRAN
Tire blister and circumferential fatigue rupture are the major problems that have been reported in the tire industry. A wide variety of efforts have been made to design compounds with less failure. The introduction of graphene in recent decades has attracted the attention of researchers to apply this superior material to the tire compound. This study investigates the potential application of graphene to reduce heat buildup and improve dynamic fatigue to restrict blistering and rupturing in tires.

12:15

Science of performance process aid for highly loaded silica compounds

Dr Rikki Lamba
Managing director, additives
Polymer Solutions Group
USA
Tire manufacturers are continuously seeking new material technologies that can be leveraged to meet ever-increasing performance requirements for improved fuel economy and wet braking demanded by vehicle manufacturers and tire-buying consumers. Material designers are using very high levels of silica (>90phr) to achieve these objectives, but at a substantial cost to processability. Most process aids also retard cure and degrade performance properties. Focusing on the needs of tire and rubber materials developers and their customers, Flow Polymers has developed SureMix CO2. When used in highly loaded silica tread formulations, it can improve processability while enhancing wet traction and fuel economy.

12:40 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

NXT silane: broad formulation latitude with ease of processing for high-performance tires

Dr Daria Sitnikova
Application development engineer
Momentive Performance Materials
GERMANY
Momentive’s NXT silane, a thiocarboxylate functional silane coupling agent, incorporated into a model passenger tread compound can enable broad formulation latitude with good processability and improved dynamic properties compared with standard sulphur silanes, namely, bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-tetrasulphide (TESPT) and bis-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-disulphide (TESPD). A comprehensive set of data will be presented for a range of polymer and silica combinations of high-performance tire compounds. This data set will include lab indicators of improved processability and performance and demonstrate the benefits that can be achieved by incorporating NXT silane.

14:25

Analysis and effect of cobalt on adhesion in steel belt radial tires

Mehdi Kafrashi
Technical expert
Yazd Tire Production Company
IRAN
In this study, the compound synthesis of belt tire radial was characterised by laboratory tests such as MDR, hardness and physical-mechanical properties. Three compound samples with amount of cobalt (0, 1, and 2 phr) were constructed and its effect on intra-surface morphological structure was evaluated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy, radiation of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, these levels show different amounts of adhesion promoters affecting the amount and distribution of cobalt ions (XRD). The effect of cobalt on intra-surface structure and crystallisation and also its correlation showed better adhesion performance.

14:50

Crystex Cure Pro insoluble sulphur – the next generation of insoluble sulphur

Dr Frederick Ignatz-Hoover
Technology fellow
Eastman Chemical Co
USA
Eastman Crystex Cure Pro insoluble sulphur is a highly optimised polymeric sulphur specifically engineered for maximum performance characteristics. Crystex Cure Pro demonstrates a combination of superior critical characteristics for polymeric insoluble sulphur. Enhanced flow, easier handling and superior dispersion characteristics along with improved thermal stability make Crystex Cure Pro a unique performer because it has the important features that tire manufacturers want in insoluble sulphur. Better flow and handling provide considerable convenience and accurate dosing in plant operations, while the improvements in dispersion and thermal stability provide users of Crystex Cure Pro with operational savings opportunities. Plant-scale designed experiments using

15:15 - 15:35

Break

15:35

Tire oils with low aromatic content and high solvency

Dr Mika Lahtinen
Global technical manager
Nynas AB
FINLAND
Aromatic oils have been replaced with safe oils in tire compounding in most regions. The next region to introduce legislation will be India or China. Replacement of aromatic oils in non-tread compounds has been fast. Oil content is lower and polymers less polar than in passenger car tires (PCR). The PCR tread compounds contain SBR, and require more polar plasticisers. Furthermore, high glass transition temperature is required to ensure traction. Oils with medium aromatic content (23-35%) are thus favoured. In this paper we discuss the use of tread compound oil with low aromatic content. It is also beneficial for future supply.

16:00

Performance hydrocarbon resins in tread formulations – why use resin?

Dr Mark Arigo
Associate scientist
Eastman Chemical Company
USA
Hydrocarbon resins are low molecular weight polymers with high glass transition temperatures that are used in tire tread formulations to modify the viscoelastic properties. In this presentation, we investigate the impact of resins on tread performance and examine why resins provide unique solutions to balancing wet grip. It is observed that resins modify the compound Tg, producing a significant difference between polymer glass transition (E” peak) and compound glass transition (tan? peak). Resins also increase the breadth of the tan? peak and thus the range of performance possible for the compound, be it WG, RR, wear or snow properties.

Stream 10 - Simulation Modelling and Testing + Conclusions

09:00

Numerical simulation of the fluid-structure interactions inside the aquaplaning problem

Dr Corentin Hermange
Research and development engineer
Michelin
FRANCE
A new coupling strategy between smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and finite element (FE) methods is developed and applied to the tire aquaplaning problem. Improvements in the SPH-FE coupling are proposed to achieve efficient simulations of such a complex phenomenon. On the fluid side, the SPH method seems perfectly suited to handle the three complex interfaces of the aquaplaning phenomenon: free-surface, ground/fluid and fluid/tire interfaces. The present 3D SPH-FE model is first validated on various academic test cases before considering the complex problem of the 3D aquaplaning simulations for new and worn tires.

09:25

Need of thermal tire modeling for handling simulation: practical verification

Lorenzo Tonelli
Junior applied research engineer
Pirelli Tyre SpA
ITALY
Many different technical papers take into account the effect of temperature variation on tire cornering and braking properties. It has been proved that the tire forces and moments depend on thermal effects, which in turn depend on lateral and longitudinal slip and on the forces themselves. In this presentation, the typical vehicle handling manoeuvres are analysed to assess how much every manoeuvre is affected by a thermal tire model.

09:50

The latest tire modelling and testing developments at Jaguar Land Rover

Jan Prins
Technical specialist
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
Mateo Gladstone
Specialist engineer tire CAE and modelling
Jaguar Land Rover
UK
The presentation will provide an overview of the latest tire modelling and testing developments at Jaguar Land Rover.

10:15

Advanced methods for tire handling analysis, characterisation and parameterisation with CDTire

Francesco Calabrese
Tire and vehicle dynamics simulation engineer
Fraunhofer-Institut für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik
GERMANY
CDTire/3D is a physical 3D mechanical tire model. In the model each functional part of the tire structure – sidewall, belt layers, carcass, cap ply – is described by means of shell formulation. The thread is described with an advanced brush model. This presentation will show how to analyse typical tire handling behaviour by using simulation; how to explain the connection between handling property and the tire structure; how it is possible to parameterise CDTire/3D for handling; what is the minimum requirement of measurements needed for complete characterisation.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Analytical modelling of sliding friction: effect of load on friction

Sunish Vadakkeveetil
Graduate student
Virginia Polytechnic Institution and State University
USA
Estimation of friction in the rubber-road contact interface plays an important role in predicting and optimising tire and vehicle performance. Development of physics-based rubber friction models has gathered interest among researchers and industries for the past three decades. In the present study, a friction model of rubber block sliding on rough substrate is investigated based on Persson and Kluppel’s models. The effect of load on friction and contact mechanics parameters of the model is discussed. Comparison of model results with experimental data obtained using a dynamic friction tester developed at CenTiRe has shown that normal load should be included in the friction model.

11:25

Tire rubber extrusion experiment and simulations with wall slip

Tijmen Mateboer
Researcher
Professorship for Polymer Engineering of Windesheim University of Applied Sciences
NETHERLANDS
Extrudate swell of filled rubbers is common in the tire industry. Extrudate swell is a complicating factor in the die design. Numerical simulation of extrudate swell may benefit the die design process. Wall slip of rubber along the die wall is a relevant parameter for the flow behaviour and the extrusion simulation. Extrudate swell simulations and experiments have been performed with a viscoelastic tire rubber compound through a circular die. A viscoelastic PTT model was fitted onto rheological data of the rubber. Wall slip was determined with rheological measurements.

11:50

NVH technology as a diagnostic tool in OE development programmes

Subramaniam Loganathan
Senior manager - vehicle dynamics
CEAT Limited
INDIA
Tire development for the Indian automotive market is a challenge, with comfort and fuel efficiency the top priorities. Today, product validation through physical testing is still indispensable, despite the advancement in virtual simulation. Well-developed NVH technology in outdoor vehicle measurement gives more freedom in optimising tire tuning with pattern and construction to meet stringent customer requirements including OEMs. This study probes the impact of pattern, cavity and construction on tire NVH by virtual simulation and validation at vehicle level. It also covers source level noise measurement and unique analysis techniques to quantify tire NVH performance at vehicle level.

12:15

Modelling and replicating real-world surfaces for indoor laboratory testing

Matthew Della Pia
Simulation engineer
Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation
USA
Historically, the precisely controlled environments at indoor tire testing facilities has produced repeatable tire force and moment data with the understanding that the testing surface was not asphalt. Indoor surfaces that are more characteristic of asphalt allow for repeatable test data that is more representative of outdoor testing results. This presentation will demonstrate an analytical approach for transforming outdoor surface roughness scan data into viable surfaces for indoor high-speed flat-belt testing.

12:40 - 14:00

Lunch

14:00

Simulation of rolling disc with lateral tread pattern

Thirumal Alagu Palanichamy
Doctoral student
Leibniz University
GERMANY
The present methods for the simulation of rolling tires with lateral tread pattern take a lot of computational effort . Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) relative kinematic framework is widely used for rolling tires due to less computational effort. But the disadvantage is that it can only be applied to axi-symmetric tire models. In this work, a coupled ALE - Lagrangian framework is proposed for the simulation of tire model with lateral tread pattern. The tread cap is defined in the Lagrangian manner and the tread base is defined in an ALE relative kinematic framework.

14:25

Finite element modelling of tires for dynamic test

Abubaker Al-Tayawe
PhD researcher
Cranfield University
UK
The presentation discusses the procedures to implement a proper dynamic rubber material card on a finite element model of a tire. Current state-of-the-art models implement an improper representation of rubber behaviour in dynamic scenarios. This presentation looks at the implementation of an equation-based material card, which best defines the viscoelastic dynamic behaviour of rubber at varying strain rates. The material model is supported by material test data, where validations were carried out on the material card. Several static and dynamic scenarios of a tire are modelled using LS-DYNA software: quasi-static compression, dynamic rolling tire, rolling tire over a wedge.

14:50

Three-dimensional characterisation of dynamic tire deflections

Henning Olsson
Director, Research and Development
Calspan
USA
The external shape of a tire changes significantly with operating conditions such as speed, load and inflation pressure. Using dynamic measurements of tire surfaces, a method has been developed to correlate operating conditions with external tire surface deflection. The deflection correlation is used to generate a tire surface model. Analysis of how operating conditions influence the overall tire geometry is presented. Finally, the use of this in full vehicle aerodynamics simulation and its impact on vehicle energy efficiency is discussed.

15:15

Temperature, roughness and wear in real-time advanced MF modelling

Dr Flavio Farroni
Research fellow - CEO and co-founder
University of Naples - MegaRide
ITALY
The physical modelling of tire-road interaction phenomena and the employment of advanced simulation tools developed by UniNa Vehicle Dynamics research group and engineered by its spin-off, MegaRide, allow the prediction and simulation of tire temperature local distribution, tread wear and the adhesive and hysteretic components of friction arising at the road interface. The cooperation among such physical models allows the level of realism and reliability provided by a simulation system to be increased, predicting, in the proposed case study, the modifications that the effects of the cited phenomena will cause to the parameters of an innovative methodology to implement Pacejka's MF formulation.

Stream 11 - Tire Material Research - University of Twente

09:00

Influence of resins on in-rubber properties of an elastomeric compound

Neven Markovic
PDEng
University of Twente, The Netherlands
NETHERLANDS
Resins are widely used in adhesives due to their ability to improve tack. For the same reason they are applied in rubber compounds. These resins are low-molecular-weight oligomers produced from a natural or synthetic source of monomers. When applied in a rubber formulation they can replace the oil and act as a processing aid. The solubility of both a rubber and a resin are major factors that determine the behaviour of a rubber-resin blend. Besides solubility, the structure molecular-weight and concentration of the resin have the highest influence on a rubber. These influences will be covered during the presentation.

09:25

Dispersion control during mixing of silica-filled tread compounds

Ayush Kharel
PDEng
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Rheology of silica-reinforced compounds is affected by the filler interaction with the elastomer. The process of mixing silica into the elastomer determines the interaction between them and influences their extrudability and rheological properties. A mechanical breakdown of silica agglomerates as well as a chemical reaction between silica and silane have to occur during mixing. Therefore, it is a challenge to maintain a consistent level of interaction in every batch. The Payne effect is an indicator of inter-particle interaction. This project aims to design a predictive mixing control method by mapping the evolution of Payne effect with mixing parameters.

09:50

Prediction of in-rubber dispersibility of silica by analytical methods

Fabian Grunert
PhD student
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Precipitated silica in combination with bi-functional organosilanes are among the most important fillers for passenger car tire tread compounds. Still, the challenge is to reach a good dispersion and distribution of the silica inside the rubber matrix. It is known that the compound formulation and mixing process influence the processing and dispersion behaviour. Moreover, silica itself has a great impact on the in-rubber dispersion quality and it is crucial to be aware of the typical analytical parameters and their impact on the dispersibility. Therefore, different approaches were investigated to predict the in-rubber dispersibility of silica by new analytical methods.

10:15

Alternative to diphenylguanidine in silica-reinforced natural rubber tire tread compounds

Chesidi Hayichelaeh
PhD student
University of Twente (The Netherlands)
THAILAND
Diphenylguanidine (DPG) is widely used in silica-reinforced rubber compounds to enhance the silanisation and vulcanisation reactions. Due to toxic aniline liberated by DPG under high processing temperature, safe alternatives are required. This work investigates octadecylamine (OCT) as a DPG alternative in silica-filled natural rubber compounds. The compound properties are comparatively assessed by taking the ones with DPG and without amine as references. Kinetics of the silanisation reaction between silica and silane in the presence of amines are studied based on model compounds. The use of OCT promotes interfacial compatibility combining chemical and physical interactions, resulting in good performance.

10:40 - 11:00

Break

11:00

Influence of network structure on elastomer properties

Anke Blume
University professor
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Considerable attention is paid to the influence of crosslink density and crosslink structures on the behaviour of elastomers. A very important parameter seems to be underestimated: the modifications to the polymer chains by curatives, formed by sulphur and fragments of accelerators. The present paper intends to draw attention to this important contribution to performance of spatial networks. The emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber (E-SBR) samples, cured with tetramethylthiuram disulphide and sulphur (TMTD/S8), and zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate with sulphur (ZDT/S8), were studied.

11:25

Silica-NR masterbatch as an alternative for tire raw materials

Dr Wisut Kaewsakul
Assistant professor
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
In the conventional mixing of silica-filled rubber compounds, the silica and silane coupling agent are added separately into the mixer during the second sequence, which is the most crucial step in achieving adequate hydrophobation on silica surface. However, there are drawbacks including difficult mixing control, long cycle time as well as high energy input and cost. In this study, alternative approaches are made by utilising pre-silanised silica and silica-NR masterbatch. Positive results are found in the latter case as it essentially overcomes the hassles encountered in conventional mixing, while slightly improving reinforcement efficiency.

11:50

Reactivity study of mercapto-silane and sulphide-silane with polymer

Masaki Sato
PhD student
University of Twente
NETHERLANDS
Mercapto-silanes enable an improved silica dispersion state compared with sulphide-silanes in tire tread compounds. However, they also have a tendency to cause processing difficulties. Therefore, as a possible influencing factor for the above-described phenomena, the silane/rubber reactions were investigated in a model system using alkenes instead of polymers together with silanes. The results reveal that mercapto-silanes and sulphide-silanes react in different ways depending on the type of double bond. Based on the findings, the reason for the different properties in silica-filled compounds with various polymer/silane combinations will be explained.

12:15 - 14:00

Lunch

Stream 12 - Young Scientist Developments

14:00

Fatigue modelling of cord-rubber composites

Niraj Kumar Jha
PhD student
Leibniz University
GERMANY
Modelling of damage in elastomeric composite structures nowadays is a subject of growing interest mainly because of the high demand in automotive industries. Such structures are, for example, tires, hoses and air springs. This presentation will focus on accurate fatigue damage modelling for a cord-reinforced rubber structure. The potential failure modes e.g. cord-rubber interface debonding, delamination, matrix damage or interacting damage mechanisms will be explained. Also, numerical methods to assess durability will be explained with regard to the implementation in commercial ?nite element code ABAQUS.

14:25

Cavitation damage in tire rubber materials investigated by computed tomography

Eric Euchler
PhD student
Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung Dresden eV
GERMANY
Under constraint conditions, multi-axial stress states arise in rubber materials under tensile loading. They are responsible for cavitation phenomena as first steps in the failure process of the whole material. Micro computed tomography (µCT) enables the characterisation of the formation of reversible as well as irreversible cavities and their merging in the case of failure. By synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering it is possible to investigate initial stages of the damage process. The results of these investigations can be compared and discussed, considering results achieved by dilatometry tests.

14:50

Multi-physical approach for tire contact and wear mechanisms modelling

Aleksandr Sakhnevych
PhD student
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
ITALY
The experience gained through the development of physical models and continuous research into advanced and innovative testing procedures could finally lead to full characterisation and understanding of the tire thermodynamic behaviour. Taking into account the temperature and wear influence on both the tire structural and compound viscoelastic characteristics, expressed respectively in terms of interaction stiffness and performance level, as a function of tread temperature, sliding speed, road granularity and load history, the approach to a tire complete dynamic analysis and modelling can therefore be necessarily multi-physical.

15:15

Model-based sensitivity analysis of tire transient handling performance

Pavel Sarkisov
PhD candidate (former)
TU Dresden (former)
GERMANY
The paper represents an analysis of the effect chain between tire structural parameters and its transient handling performance. Eight tire parameters were considered (e.g. carcass lateral stiffness, tire dimension) and five model properties (e.g. number of brush elements). Handling performance was analysed with the help of seven criteria of tire performance (e.g. cornering stiffness, bore stiffness) and seven criteria of tire state (e.g. carcass deflection). This approach may be helpful for estimation of tire properties in the early phase of the vehicle development process as well as for tire model development.

Day 3: Thursday 22 February

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued)

09:30

Physical wear model on wear progress of irregular wear

Yukio Nakajima
Professor
Kogakuin university
JAPAN
Studies of tire wear have rarely been conducted on wear progress but just wear of tires. The physical wear model has been developed to clarify the mechanism of wear progress and showed qualitative agreement with the observation where the kernel of irregular wear is initiated due to lateral stress, and then the wear is accelerated due to longitudinal stress in tires. To improve irregular wear, both maximum wear energy and step of irregular wear should be decreased. For example, ways to improve irregular wear are to increase the Young’s modulus of tread rubber or increase the crown radius.

09:55

Novel method to quantitatively characterise the heat build-up in rubber

Dr Radek Stocek
Head of R&D
PRL Polymer Research Lab
CZECH REPUBLIC
A novel methodology and laboratory instrument are introduced. With this appliance there is an easy and reliable way to undertake the characterisation of the heat build-up process and the description of the viscoelastic properties of rubber at the same time. A novel approach is discussed and the specification of the measuring setup is given. The measuring process serves values like internal temperature, energy absorption, complex modulus, elastic energy and dissipated energy, which are recorded simultaneously over time. Furthermore, the novel loading kinematic of the sample accurately simulates the loading condition for tire rubbers in different applications.

10:20

Analysing rubber mechanical and rheological properties with compatibility concept

Dr Ali Abbasian
University lecturer
Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (SRBIAU)
IRAN
Shabnam Ezzoddin
Technical forecast researcher
Barez Industrial Group
IRAN
Process oil is one of the most important ingredients in rubber compound compatibility, which affects rubber properties. Compatibility is estimated by several methods such as VGC, aniline point and swelling, none of which can give a thorough estimation of the concept. This study introduces the Hansen solubility parameter as a new method for evaluating compatibility. Low aromatic process oils as well as tire tread elastomers were subjected to inverse gas chromatography testing to calculate their solubility parameters. Results showed that rubber mechanical and rheological properties, such as tensile properties and slip velocity, could be analysed using the compatibility concept.

10:45

Characterisation of elastomers by nuclear spin relaxation

Dr Winfried Kuhn
Managing director
IIC Dr. Kuhn GmbH & Co KG
GERMANY
Elastomer and polymer properties are usually characterised by means of well-established mechanical, thermal and chemical methods, revealing macroscopic material properties. To gain a better understanding of properties such as cross-linking structure, polymer/filler interaction and ageing processes on the molecular scale, more sophisticated techniques such as e.q. nuclear spin relaxation, dielectric relaxation and others are required. We will report on studies of elastomer properties on the molecular level using nuclear spin relaxation as a tool to explore molecular dynamics as a function of curing, ageing, filler type and filler concentration.

11:10

The impact of strain history on crack growth of rubber

Dr Jean-Louis Poisson
Research engineer
Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre
UK
An automatic method has been developed at TARRC to characterise the crack growth of rubber. This method consists of cyclic testing of a flat and pre-cracked specimen with a servohydraulic testing machine, and recording simultaneously the evolution of the crack with a camera. Experimental work on the impact of strain history on crack growth of rubber illustrates the technique. Blocks of fully relaxing cycles at different strain levels are imposed on a pure shear test piece, and the crack growth rates are determined. An attempt to correlate the crack growth behaviour with the roughness of the cracked surfaces is also presented.

11:35

SMMB tire on rail testing equipment

Stefan Olivier Mueller
PhD student
Coventry University
SWITZERLAND
Road-rail vehicles (RRVs) are the new shunting engines. Their pulling power relies on road tires rolling on rails with transferable traction forces three times higher than on conventional steel wheels. This research is to accurately predict the pulling power of RRVs by means of multi-body systems (MBS). Key to an accurate prediction is a valid tire model for use on rails. This in turn requires tire on rail testing equipment, which will be described in this presentation.

Day 3: Thursday 22 February

Stream 13 - Natural Rubber and the Science of Sustainable Materials

09:30

Method for resin selection in natural rubber tread compounds

Zachary Walters
Research engineer
Cooper Tire
USA
Natural rubber is typically not used as a major component in passenger tire tread formulations due to wet grip considerations. We have demonstrated that passenger tread compounds containing as much as 100% natural rubber can be developed, which have excellent overall properties, including wet grip. This is accomplished by a careful selection of high Tg hydrocarbon resins, which are compatible with natural rubber. The presentation will discuss a method for selecting resins applicable for use in tread compounds containing high levels of natural rubber.

09:55

Thermo-mechanical evaluation of strain-induced crystallisation of natural rubber composites

Manfred Klüppel
Head of department
Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie
GERMANY
Strain-induced crystallisation (SIC) of unfilled and filled natural rubber is investigated by mechanical multi-hysteresis cycles and a thermal analysis during stretching and retraction. The expected heating of the sample due to mechanical work done at the samples is compared with on-line measurements of the surface temperature by IR camera. SIC is quantified by taking into account that crystallisation is an exothermal process leading to additional heating besides entropy-caused reversible heating and dissipative heat losses. From the measured excess temperature and the known crystallisation enthalpy, the degree of crystallinity in the stretched rubber sample is estimated.

10:20

Improving the fuel efficiency of truck tires with treated silica

Dr Lucas Dos Santos
Senior R&D engineer
PPG
USA
In-situ silanisation technology has allowed the introduction of low rolling resistance silica-filled passenger treads. When treads are predominantly comprised of natural rubber, silicas no longer provide the same benefits over carbon black due to the inability to efficiently perform the in-situ silanisation reaction. Pretreated silicas allow this barrier to be overcome, and silica-filled NR compounds to be produced. A pretreated silica-NR truck tire tread was developed under a United States DOE-sponsored project. A truck tire manufactured with this tread showed 16% improved RRC, while maintaining other performance parameters, over the carbon black-filled control tire. The development work will be presented here.

10:45

Studying carbon black filler networks subjected to high shears using combined experimental techniques

Dr Lewis Tunnicliffe
Scientist
Birla Carbon
USA
The extent and nature of networks of carbon black particles in rubber compounds play a key role in determining the mechanical hysteresis and conductivity of vulcanisates. It is well known that in uncrosslinked compounds, such networks are transient in nature when subjected to changes in shear and temperature. This study probes the observed structural recovery of carbon black networks following various levels of imposed shear. It is demonstrated that the level of shear experienced by the compound immediately prior to vulcanisation can have a dramatic effect on the dynamic mechanical properties of the vulcanised materials. Significant reductions in Payne effect (up to 50% reduction in ΔG’) occur when the timescales of shear dependent structural recovery, determined from rheological experiments, far exceed the kinetics of vulcanisation. Conductivity is similarly affected. Further to this, the microstructure of carbon black networks is tracked at different extents of recovery using TEM thin section analysis and a new AFM methodology for filler network microstructure quantification. The role of new trends in carbon black technology, such as surface modification, is discussed.

Day 3: Thursday 22 February

Stream 14 - Innovative and Experimental Tire Concepts

09:30

Trends and techniques for lightweighting in truck tires

Bruce Lambillotte
Vice president - technical consulting
Smithers Rapra
USA
The issue of lightweighting in tires has been of historical interest for materials cost control. However, with fuel costs being a major driver in the trucking industry, OEMs and fleets continue to search for ways to optimise fuel efficiency past rolling resistance. This study will employ a tire analysis database to study lightweighting in truck tires with the objectives of identifying: whole tire vs. individual component perspectives; target tire components for weight reduction; component volume vs. density trade-offs; weight reductions – rubber components vs. reinforcements.

09:55

Smart rubber innovations for next tire generations

Dr Gert Heinrich
Professor
Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden
GERMANY
We present concepts of how autonomic self-healing can be implemented into commercial tire rubbers, i.e. the material repairs by itself, leading to slowing down of crack propagation and increase of tearing resistance. The self-healing rubber concept would also lead to a very positive impact on solving the scrap tire problem. Another example of functional rubber design is rubbers with strain-dependent electrical conductivity. The change of relative resistance, ?R/R, was found to be as much as ?1,300 at around 120% elongation. This type of rubber could be used in structural health monitoring and for stretchable sensors in tires.

10:20

Tire design trade-off between rolling resistance and NVH performance

Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Andrea Carzana
R&D tire specialist
FCA Italy
ITALY
In the last decades, acoustic comfort has gained increasing importance for customers. Improving tire NVH performance without significant drawbacks in handling/safety, and following a trade-off with rolling resistance coefficient, has become a major design challenge for tire makers. This study focuses on the bead apex height and sidewall compound stiffness as design parameters that strongly influence the NVH performance on a broad frequency range. An experimental campaign that includes on-vehicle subjective and objective testing was carried out. This study provides useful information to deal with future NVH issues, enhancing the final customer experience.

10:45

Tire parameters affect trade-off between vehicle pulling and driving dynamics

Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Alberto Veneziano
Tire specialist
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Together with suspension, tires are the main components that affect drift and pull. This study focused on analysis of tire plysteer residual aligning torque. Among the hundreds of design parameters that might have an influence on the tire PRAT, the analysis focused on tread design. An experimental campaign was defined, including on-vehicle subjective and objective testing. This study might provide useful information for improved understanding and approach to future tire design, and validate the mathematical model of the vehicle to predict the real vehicle behaviour.

Day 3: Thursday 22 February

Stream 15 - Tire as an Information Source

09:30

RFID tire labelling: enhancing functionality, efficiency and environmental ambitions

Marc Flederus
CEO
Ferm RFID Solutions
NETHERLANDS
The presentation will examine the current status and ambitions regarding the use of RFID within the worldwide tire market. There is increasing interest from regulators regarding the production, maintenance and use of tires, from environmental as well as safety points of view. There are two approaches regarding unique identification of individual tires with RFID: 1) Improved traceability of tires; 2) Improved maintenance of the tire. All over world, initiatives to adopt RFID are under way, not only at the tire producers themselves but also among suppliers of this industry. During this presentation you will learn why.

09:55

Tracking of commercial tires with SCANNECT laser-etched 2D matrix codes

Dr Armin Kraus
Managing director
4JET Technologies GmbH
GERMANY
Laser engraving is a cost-efficient and robust process to individualise tires with smartphone-readable 2D matrix codes. For new tires, conveyor-based reading rates of >99.8% are achievable. However, for tracking the tire over its lifetime, codes and reading technology have to cope with wear, dirt and contamination of all kinds. The SCANNECT QR code marking solution and the corresponding SCANNECT app for Android and IOS use optimise light-trapping surface structures and tailor-made image processing algorithms, and achieve astonishing all-lifetime reading rates of >>96%. The SCANNECT app can easily be integrated into proprietary tire management applications and strongly facilitates tire-as-a-service business models.

10:20

Non-contact monitoring systems for in-service tire identification and condition analysis

Roger Tracy
Founder and CEO
Tire Profiles LLC
USA
Recent product developments in North America and Europe over the past several years using high-tech hardware and state-of-the-art technology solutions have produced a choice of equipment and methods to monitor tire condition and tire identification. Several different technical techniques for the vehicle aftermarket are now available. Solutions for large commercial fleets, large and small car dealerships, tire replacement chains, small replacement tire and automotive repair shops at various price and performance levels will be explained and discussed. The world now can know the condition and age of the world's tire population as never before. Big data now.

10:45

A smart tire concept based on multi-sensors

Yintao Wei
Professor
Tsinghua University
CHINA
A smart tire concept based on TPMS sensors and accelerometer has been developed for monitoring load, force and moment, as well as road friction coefficients identification. The tire inverse dynamics have to be properly modelled to link the signals of the sensors and the tire performance. Therefore, this smart tire concept actually is the smart combination of the tire mechanics and tire sensors.

11:10

Intelligent Tire: real-time estimation of available and potential friction coefficient

Giuseppe Callea
Head of BhaiTech Technology
BhaiTech
ITALY
BhaiTech Intelligent Tire is a technology designed for real-time estimation of a number of tire mechanical properties along with tire forces, and available and potential road-tire friction coefficient. The technology allows this information to be fed back to the vehicle, and it can be used to improve all ADAS efficiency affecting the vehicle dynamics, from ABS to more complex control and stability systems, determining the manoeuvring limits of the vehicle in the actual operating conditions. This is key to the autonomous driving application in the ultimate level of automation. Information acquired about the tire can also be used to detect possible failures.

11:35

Road condition monitoring for autonomous vehicles using rigid-ring tire model

Dr Mohammad Behroozi
Research fellow
University of Birmingham
UK
Drivers have an anticipation of the road condition based on background knowledge, and react accordingly if needed; e.g. lowering vehicle speed in snow. All the steps of a driver's reaction – which is a complex combination of sensing, reasoning, planning and reaction – are not fully comprehended in driverless vehicles. Using technologies such as lasers and cameras is useful in the meantime but not robust enough in the longer term to be fully trusted to replace human perception. In this work, a rigid ring tire model is considered as a sensor to identify the road condition and provide assistance to other detection algorithms. The following authors have contributed to the presentation: Mr Vikas Birajdar, Dr Javad Baqersad

Day 3: Thursday 22 February

Stream 5 - Tire Testing - Lab and Track (continued)

09:30

Physical wear model on wear progress of irregular wear

Yukio Nakajima
Professor
Kogakuin university
JAPAN
Studies of tire wear have rarely been conducted on wear progress but just wear of tires. The physical wear model has been developed to clarify the mechanism of wear progress and showed qualitative agreement with the observation where the kernel of irregular wear is initiated due to lateral stress, and then the wear is accelerated due to longitudinal stress in tires. To improve irregular wear, both maximum wear energy and step of irregular wear should be decreased. For example, ways to improve irregular wear are to increase the Young’s modulus of tread rubber or increase the crown radius.

09:55

Novel method to quantitatively characterise the heat build-up in rubber

Dr Radek Stocek
Head of R&D
PRL Polymer Research Lab
CZECH REPUBLIC
A novel methodology and laboratory instrument are introduced. With this appliance there is an easy and reliable way to undertake the characterisation of the heat build-up process and the description of the viscoelastic properties of rubber at the same time. A novel approach is discussed and the specification of the measuring setup is given. The measuring process serves values like internal temperature, energy absorption, complex modulus, elastic energy and dissipated energy, which are recorded simultaneously over time. Furthermore, the novel loading kinematic of the sample accurately simulates the loading condition for tire rubbers in different applications.

10:20

Analysing rubber mechanical and rheological properties with compatibility concept

Dr Ali Abbasian
University lecturer
Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (SRBIAU)
IRAN
Shabnam Ezzoddin
Technical forecast researcher
Barez Industrial Group
IRAN
Process oil is one of the most important ingredients in rubber compound compatibility, which affects rubber properties. Compatibility is estimated by several methods such as VGC, aniline point and swelling, none of which can give a thorough estimation of the concept. This study introduces the Hansen solubility parameter as a new method for evaluating compatibility. Low aromatic process oils as well as tire tread elastomers were subjected to inverse gas chromatography testing to calculate their solubility parameters. Results showed that rubber mechanical and rheological properties, such as tensile properties and slip velocity, could be analysed using the compatibility concept.

10:45

Characterisation of elastomers by nuclear spin relaxation

Dr Winfried Kuhn
Managing director
IIC Dr. Kuhn GmbH & Co KG
GERMANY
Elastomer and polymer properties are usually characterised by means of well-established mechanical, thermal and chemical methods, revealing macroscopic material properties. To gain a better understanding of properties such as cross-linking structure, polymer/filler interaction and ageing processes on the molecular scale, more sophisticated techniques such as e.q. nuclear spin relaxation, dielectric relaxation and others are required. We will report on studies of elastomer properties on the molecular level using nuclear spin relaxation as a tool to explore molecular dynamics as a function of curing, ageing, filler type and filler concentration.

11:10

The impact of strain history on crack growth of rubber

Dr Jean-Louis Poisson
Research engineer
Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre
UK
An automatic method has been developed at TARRC to characterise the crack growth of rubber. This method consists of cyclic testing of a flat and pre-cracked specimen with a servohydraulic testing machine, and recording simultaneously the evolution of the crack with a camera. Experimental work on the impact of strain history on crack growth of rubber illustrates the technique. Blocks of fully relaxing cycles at different strain levels are imposed on a pure shear test piece, and the crack growth rates are determined. An attempt to correlate the crack growth behaviour with the roughness of the cracked surfaces is also presented.

11:35

SMMB tire on rail testing equipment

Stefan Olivier Mueller
PhD student
Coventry University
SWITZERLAND
Road-rail vehicles (RRVs) are the new shunting engines. Their pulling power relies on road tires rolling on rails with transferable traction forces three times higher than on conventional steel wheels. This research is to accurately predict the pulling power of RRVs by means of multi-body systems (MBS). Key to an accurate prediction is a valid tire model for use on rails. This in turn requires tire on rail testing equipment, which will be described in this presentation.

Stream 13 - Natural Rubber and the Science of Sustainable Materials

09:30

Method for resin selection in natural rubber tread compounds

Zachary Walters
Research engineer
Cooper Tire
USA
Natural rubber is typically not used as a major component in passenger tire tread formulations due to wet grip considerations. We have demonstrated that passenger tread compounds containing as much as 100% natural rubber can be developed, which have excellent overall properties, including wet grip. This is accomplished by a careful selection of high Tg hydrocarbon resins, which are compatible with natural rubber. The presentation will discuss a method for selecting resins applicable for use in tread compounds containing high levels of natural rubber.

09:55

Thermo-mechanical evaluation of strain-induced crystallisation of natural rubber composites

Manfred Klüppel
Head of department
Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie
GERMANY
Strain-induced crystallisation (SIC) of unfilled and filled natural rubber is investigated by mechanical multi-hysteresis cycles and a thermal analysis during stretching and retraction. The expected heating of the sample due to mechanical work done at the samples is compared with on-line measurements of the surface temperature by IR camera. SIC is quantified by taking into account that crystallisation is an exothermal process leading to additional heating besides entropy-caused reversible heating and dissipative heat losses. From the measured excess temperature and the known crystallisation enthalpy, the degree of crystallinity in the stretched rubber sample is estimated.

10:20

Improving the fuel efficiency of truck tires with treated silica

Dr Lucas Dos Santos
Senior R&D engineer
PPG
USA
In-situ silanisation technology has allowed the introduction of low rolling resistance silica-filled passenger treads. When treads are predominantly comprised of natural rubber, silicas no longer provide the same benefits over carbon black due to the inability to efficiently perform the in-situ silanisation reaction. Pretreated silicas allow this barrier to be overcome, and silica-filled NR compounds to be produced. A pretreated silica-NR truck tire tread was developed under a United States DOE-sponsored project. A truck tire manufactured with this tread showed 16% improved RRC, while maintaining other performance parameters, over the carbon black-filled control tire. The development work will be presented here.

10:45

Studying carbon black filler networks subjected to high shears using combined experimental techniques

Dr Lewis Tunnicliffe
Scientist
Birla Carbon
USA
The extent and nature of networks of carbon black particles in rubber compounds play a key role in determining the mechanical hysteresis and conductivity of vulcanisates. It is well known that in uncrosslinked compounds, such networks are transient in nature when subjected to changes in shear and temperature. This study probes the observed structural recovery of carbon black networks following various levels of imposed shear. It is demonstrated that the level of shear experienced by the compound immediately prior to vulcanisation can have a dramatic effect on the dynamic mechanical properties of the vulcanised materials. Significant reductions in Payne effect (up to 50% reduction in ΔG’) occur when the timescales of shear dependent structural recovery, determined from rheological experiments, far exceed the kinetics of vulcanisation. Conductivity is similarly affected. Further to this, the microstructure of carbon black networks is tracked at different extents of recovery using TEM thin section analysis and a new AFM methodology for filler network microstructure quantification. The role of new trends in carbon black technology, such as surface modification, is discussed.

Stream 14 - Innovative and Experimental Tire Concepts

09:30

Trends and techniques for lightweighting in truck tires

Bruce Lambillotte
Vice president - technical consulting
Smithers Rapra
USA
The issue of lightweighting in tires has been of historical interest for materials cost control. However, with fuel costs being a major driver in the trucking industry, OEMs and fleets continue to search for ways to optimise fuel efficiency past rolling resistance. This study will employ a tire analysis database to study lightweighting in truck tires with the objectives of identifying: whole tire vs. individual component perspectives; target tire components for weight reduction; component volume vs. density trade-offs; weight reductions – rubber components vs. reinforcements.

09:55

Smart rubber innovations for next tire generations

Dr Gert Heinrich
Professor
Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden
GERMANY
We present concepts of how autonomic self-healing can be implemented into commercial tire rubbers, i.e. the material repairs by itself, leading to slowing down of crack propagation and increase of tearing resistance. The self-healing rubber concept would also lead to a very positive impact on solving the scrap tire problem. Another example of functional rubber design is rubbers with strain-dependent electrical conductivity. The change of relative resistance, ?R/R, was found to be as much as ?1,300 at around 120% elongation. This type of rubber could be used in structural health monitoring and for stretchable sensors in tires.

10:20

Tire design trade-off between rolling resistance and NVH performance

Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Andrea Carzana
R&D tire specialist
FCA Italy
ITALY
In the last decades, acoustic comfort has gained increasing importance for customers. Improving tire NVH performance without significant drawbacks in handling/safety, and following a trade-off with rolling resistance coefficient, has become a major design challenge for tire makers. This study focuses on the bead apex height and sidewall compound stiffness as design parameters that strongly influence the NVH performance on a broad frequency range. An experimental campaign that includes on-vehicle subjective and objective testing was carried out. This study provides useful information to deal with future NVH issues, enhancing the final customer experience.

10:45

Tire parameters affect trade-off between vehicle pulling and driving dynamics

Mauro Martino
Wheels and tires - designer responsible
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Alberto Veneziano
Tire specialist
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
ITALY
Together with suspension, tires are the main components that affect drift and pull. This study focused on analysis of tire plysteer residual aligning torque. Among the hundreds of design parameters that might have an influence on the tire PRAT, the analysis focused on tread design. An experimental campaign was defined, including on-vehicle subjective and objective testing. This study might provide useful information for improved understanding and approach to future tire design, and validate the mathematical model of the vehicle to predict the real vehicle behaviour.

Stream 15 - Tire as an Information Source

09:30

RFID tire labelling: enhancing functionality, efficiency and environmental ambitions

Marc Flederus
CEO
Ferm RFID Solutions
NETHERLANDS
The presentation will examine the current status and ambitions regarding the use of RFID within the worldwide tire market. There is increasing interest from regulators regarding the production, maintenance and use of tires, from environmental as well as safety points of view. There are two approaches regarding unique identification of individual tires with RFID: 1) Improved traceability of tires; 2) Improved maintenance of the tire. All over world, initiatives to adopt RFID are under way, not only at the tire producers themselves but also among suppliers of this industry. During this presentation you will learn why.

09:55

Tracking of commercial tires with SCANNECT laser-etched 2D matrix codes

Dr Armin Kraus
Managing director
4JET Technologies GmbH
GERMANY
Laser engraving is a cost-efficient and robust process to individualise tires with smartphone-readable 2D matrix codes. For new tires, conveyor-based reading rates of >99.8% are achievable. However, for tracking the tire over its lifetime, codes and reading technology have to cope with wear, dirt and contamination of all kinds. The SCANNECT QR code marking solution and the corresponding SCANNECT app for Android and IOS use optimise light-trapping surface structures and tailor-made image processing algorithms, and achieve astonishing all-lifetime reading rates of >>96%. The SCANNECT app can easily be integrated into proprietary tire management applications and strongly facilitates tire-as-a-service business models.

10:20

Non-contact monitoring systems for in-service tire identification and condition analysis

Roger Tracy
Founder and CEO
Tire Profiles LLC
USA
Recent product developments in North America and Europe over the past several years using high-tech hardware and state-of-the-art technology solutions have produced a choice of equipment and methods to monitor tire condition and tire identification. Several different technical techniques for the vehicle aftermarket are now available. Solutions for large commercial fleets, large and small car dealerships, tire replacement chains, small replacement tire and automotive repair shops at various price and performance levels will be explained and discussed. The world now can know the condition and age of the world's tire population as never before. Big data now.

10:45

A smart tire concept based on multi-sensors

Yintao Wei
Professor
Tsinghua University
CHINA
A smart tire concept based on TPMS sensors and accelerometer has been developed for monitoring load, force and moment, as well as road friction coefficients identification. The tire inverse dynamics have to be properly modelled to link the signals of the sensors and the tire performance. Therefore, this smart tire concept actually is the smart combination of the tire mechanics and tire sensors.

11:10

Intelligent Tire: real-time estimation of available and potential friction coefficient

Giuseppe Callea
Head of BhaiTech Technology
BhaiTech
ITALY
BhaiTech Intelligent Tire is a technology designed for real-time estimation of a number of tire mechanical properties along with tire forces, and available and potential road-tire friction coefficient. The technology allows this information to be fed back to the vehicle, and it can be used to improve all ADAS efficiency affecting the vehicle dynamics, from ABS to more complex control and stability systems, determining the manoeuvring limits of the vehicle in the actual operating conditions. This is key to the autonomous driving application in the ultimate level of automation. Information acquired about the tire can also be used to detect possible failures.

11:35

Road condition monitoring for autonomous vehicles using rigid-ring tire model

Dr Mohammad Behroozi
Research fellow
University of Birmingham
UK
Drivers have an anticipation of the road condition based on background knowledge, and react accordingly if needed; e.g. lowering vehicle speed in snow. All the steps of a driver's reaction – which is a complex combination of sensing, reasoning, planning and reaction – are not fully comprehended in driverless vehicles. Using technologies such as lasers and cameras is useful in the meantime but not robust enough in the longer term to be fully trusted to replace human perception. In this work, a rigid ring tire model is considered as a sensor to identify the road condition and provide assistance to other detection algorithms. The following authors have contributed to the presentation: Mr Vikas Birajdar, Dr Javad Baqersad

Please Note: This conference programme may be subject to change

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20-22 FEBRUARY 2018