Presented by Bob Kind MIMMM, GPRI, technical director of Polymer Recyclers UK; and John Bowen MIMMM, BSc, consultant formerly of Robinson Bros Chemicals UK. This basic course is designed for all those working in the associated tire industry who wish to know more about the compounding of rubber. It will try to define the concepts in simple terms, but at the same time relate them to actual manufacturing and product circumstances.
Chemical formula, molecular model
Manufacture – latex, tapping, concentration, coagulation.
Chemical and physical properties - crystalinity, elasticity, hysteresis, glass transition, mastication
Basic chemistry of vulcanisation
Test methods optimum cure, cure rate, scorch, Tan Delta.
Effect of different cure systems on properties.
Relationship between temperature and time
Heat transfer and curing methods and media
Viscosity - Measurement, effect of strain rate, processability testers.
Surface finish, shrinkage and nerve, tack
to change the basic properties and to make a range of products by the inclusion of different chemicals
A typical compound and the role of basic ingredients.
The requirement for reinforcement.
Reinforcing fillers - carbon black and silica.
The effect of particle size and structure
From degradation. Effect of oxygen, ozone, heat, UV light
Effect of liquids - oil and fuel resistance, water, acid & alkali resistance
Video of lab mill mix. Addition order, time and temperature.
Advantages and disadvantages.
Compatability & polarity, dispersion, distribution, solubility, bloom.
Types of mixer, methods of mixing, control parameters, fill factor, automatic control of weighments and process, quality control.
For vulcanised rubber. Basic tests – Hardness, SG, Tensile strength, Tear strength. Product specific tests – Abrasion resistance, flex cracking, ozone resistance, accelerated ageing tests, compression set, fluid resistance.
Specifically tyre elastomers SBR, BR, IIR and halogenated IIR, methods of manufacture, property comparisons.
The ASTM D 2000 classification system for automotive applications.
Specific requirements, silica and silane technology.
Steam vulcanisation, continuous vulcanisation
Materials already in use.
Recycled materials, tyre crumb, reclaim, devulcanised rubber, pyrolytic black and recycled process oil.