Tire Technology Expo 2017

Conference Programme


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Day 1

Tuesday 14 February

09:00 - 17:20 - S1 - Where business and technology issues facing tire and vehicle manufacturers converge
Brussels & Rom (Blue)

(This session is shared by both the Scientific and Technical Conference, and the Tire Business Strategy Conference.)

09:00 - Welcome
Tony Robinson, chairman & CEO, founder of Tire Technology Expo, UK

Moderator
Rudi Hein, executive advisor standards and regulations, Bridgestone Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), BELGIUM

The Robert William Thomson Lecture

09:10 - Natural rubber – from carriages to cars and beyond
Dr Stuart Cook, director of research, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK
Natural rubber has played a pivotal role in tire development from the very beginning when Robert Thomson first described its use in his pneumatic tire invention of 1846. Indeed, a number of issues relevant to the tire industry today, including rolling resistance, noise and ‘runflat’ technology, were also addressed in his patent. This lecture seeks to identify the major landmarks in tire development and the role that natural rubber has played in such developments and is likely to play in the future development of the tire.

Keynotes

09:40 - Estimation and guarantee the entire tire life?
Dr Bernd Löwenhaupt, managing director, Sumitomo Rubber Europe GmbH, GERMANY
Tire performance is evaluated under typical conditions in the brand-new state by journals or catalogue. But in the actual market, a tire is used under many conditions with wear and ageing in all seasons. Therefore, tire suppliers should develop tires that are better fitted to the actual market during the entire tire lifetime. This requires technology to estimate the tire performance, taking into consideration all these effects at the development stage, which leads to better tire environmental situations. This paper will introduce this basic concept.

10:10 - Natural rubber alternatives from a tire manufacturer’s viewpoint
Chuck Yurkovich, senior vice president, Global Research and Development, Cooper Tire & Rubber, USA
Alternatives to Hevea natural rubber have received significant media exposure over the past few years. This presentation will review the exploration of such alternatives from a tire manufacturer’s perspective, and discuss how these developments will help address challenges the tire industry faces now and in the future.

10:40 - Tire innovation and new powertrain technologies
Pierre Fraisse, passenger car & light truck tire pre-development director, Michelin, FRANCE
Drastic shifts in mobility expectations are now under way, leading to new challenges for the automotive industry. There is growing pressure on environment footprint reduction, massive urbanisation, and new practices of mobility where users tend to move towards mobility services rather than owning their vehicles. Facing these new trends, car makers adapt their offers, developing new eco-friendly powertrain systems, global mobility services and automated vehicles. In this new paradigm, tires will play stronger role in energy efficiency and autonomy, and will also evolve to meet these new usages. This opens new fields of innovation in tire technologies and associated services.

11:10 - 11:30 - Break

11:30 - Outlook for the global tire market - new markets and future trends in vehicle and tire sales
Paul Settles, senior research economist, LMC International, UK
The presentation will cover: trends in vehicle sales and production; the growth of the global vehicle parc (and the importance of the emerging markets); the determinants of replacement tire sales and trends in replacement tire sales; growth of tire trade (and tariffs) and its impact on manufacturing locations.

12:00 - Tire Industry 2030: from a synthetic elastomer supplier's perspective
Dr Thomas Gross, head of global TS&D and R&D business unit tire & specialty rubbers, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
This keynote aims at translating automotive and tire industry trends into tomorrow’s performance elastomers. While discussing aspects such as material and technology developments, government regulations, market dynamics and sustainability, the impact on the development activities of the entire value chain and, most particularly, raw material suppliers like Arlanxeo, will be analysed. Improving the performance of our rubbers and thus of our customers’ products is our main driver. Arlanxeo is a world-leading synthetic elastomer company with a global presence of 20 production sites and sales of around €2.8bn. It was established as a joint venture of Lanxess and Saudi Aramco.

12:30 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Paul Ita, analyst, North Consulting, USA

14:00 - The future of the tire industry
David Shaw, CEO, Tire Industry Research, UK
This presentation looks at the next 10-20 years in the tire industry. It examines the main challenges facing the industry from increased global competition to autonomous vehicles and ultra-low rolling resistance targets then suggests some ways the whole value chain needs to change in order to meet these challenges.

14:30 - A watershed moment for the automotive industry. How will the automotive industry adapt to change and what influence will this have on business models in the tire industry?
Dr Elmar Kades, managing director, AlixPartners GmbH, GERMANY
The automotive industry is facing the biggest challenge of the past 100 years: how will it keep up with the fast pace of change? An AlixPartners global study predicts that in the next 15 years, electric and hybrid cars could capture over half of the market; connected and autonomous driving will open up new earnings potential; digitisation will enable double-digit cost reductions. The presentation will explore how these factors will influence models in the tire industry.

15:00 - Car of the future: strategic challenges and business opportunities for tire makers
Edoardo Spina, equity research analyst, Exane BNP Paribas, UK
Electric vehicles, car sharing and autonomous driving are expected to bring an unprecedented wave of disruption to the automotive industry over the next decade. Tire makers may have a unique opportunity to enhance their value added to car makers, drivers and passengers, and consolidate their position in the supply chain. However, incumbent tire champions need to keep an eye on new competition from the Far East and make the right strategic decisions.

15:30 - 15:50 - Break

15:50 - Low NR prices and ample availability – for how long?
Dr Hidde Smit, consultant, Rubber Forecasts, NETHERLANDS
The presentation will discuss: the boom in planting of natural rubber (NR) and the resulting surplus in production potential – when the peak will be and when it will finish; price sensitivity of NR producers – the extent to which farmers reduce tapping intensity; driving forces for the developments in prices of NR, butadiene and synthetic rubber – who is following whom; total rubber consumption and the China factor – lower growth rates, steady increases; lack of price sensitivity of consumers and the outlook for NR consumption; interaction on the NR market and the outlook for production and prices.

16:20 - Investments in research - challenges and future for tire materials
Prof Ulrich Giese, managing director, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V (DIK), GERMANY
Concerning future and actual regulations and requirements on tires from market and from politics, the main topics are high lifetime, saving energy, safety, and reduction of CO2 emission during production and in use (CO2 footprint). Economic mixing and vulcanisation techniques, low rolling resistance, extremely reduced wear in combination with highly effective filler systems reducing weight, and high reinforcement properties and sensor technology, require high investments in fundamental and applied research. Highly sophisticated testing and validated simulation methods will contribute to successful development of intelligent tires and to the reduction of costs.

16:50 - Business impact of tire fillers - forecasts from 2020 -2030
Paul Ita, analyst, North Consulting, USA
The presentation will offer long-term projections about the outlook for tire fillers (carbon black and silica). What will be the long-term effect of new environmental legislation, substitution threat, tire design and tire industry product mix shifts? Forecast from 2020 to 2030.

10:30 - 17:20 - S2 - Tire manufacturing advances (Part 1)
Paris (Purple)

Moderator
Adwin de Vocht, global account manager, VMI Holland BV, NETHERLANDS

10:30 - Tire manufacturing of tomorrow
Jacob Peled, executive chairman, Pelmar Engineering, ISRAEL
Extrapolating from the rate of change and development within the tire and rubber industry in the last 100 years, tire manufacturing in the future will not be much different. Having said that, transformations are already happening as a result of market changes in almost all parts of the world. There are also developments that relate to subjects such as electric cars, logistic burdens, emergence of new markets, mergers and acquisitions, increased value and scarcity of real estate, and the courage of a few to be eccentric.

10:50 - The use of scale-up-sized internal intensive mixers
Richard Jorkasky, technical manager, Kobelco Stewart Bolling Inc, USA
Tire companies tend to have two types of mixers: the small, lab-sized giving 1-3kg and large production mixers yielding 200-600kg. When mixing new compounds, going from the lab-sized mixer to a production mixer can yield 200-600kg of scrap or re-work because of scale-up variabilities. A way to minimise problems is through the use of intermediate sized 'scale-up' mixers. This presentation will show how by first mixing in a scale-up mixer, one can eliminate poor production mixes and scale-up problems, reduce optimisation time and minimise waste/re-work.

11:10 - Screw surface coating influence on the rubber extrusion process
Mário Kaprálik, R&D manager, Konštrukta-Industry AS, SLOVAKIA
New extrusion screw surface coating types offer better wear resistance. But how does it influence the extrusion process? A comparison of PVD CrN and nitrided surface is presented.

11:30 - A rheologically optimised extrusion line for tire components
Dr Gerard Nijman, head of extrusion process engineering, HF-Group, GERMANY
The challenge of a capable high-quality tread and sidewall extrusion line is to form profiles out of up to six compounds without any shrinkage. Moreover, compound recipes change more quickly nowadays than ever before. To achieve a high-quality extrudate, the thermo-rheological behaviour of all compounds needs to be well known and obeyed. A rheologically optimised extrusion line for treads and sidewalls will be presented. The focus will be on screw design, flow channel, pre-former and die design as well as downstream layout.

11:50 - Multilayer powertrain for intermeshing mixer
Johannes Jennissen, managing director, Rado Engineering GmbH, GERMANY
By analysing the fingerprints of existing mixing processes you will find that standard powertrains are often working in disadvantageous working points. Multilayer concepts could be created for your product portfolio and will help you reduce power consumption and give you possibilities for further process optimisation.

12:10 - Implementing smart mixing technology for the tire industry
Dr Mohamed Hassan, R&T executive director, Mesnac Americas Co Ltd, USA
This is an introduction to the smart mixing technology developed by Mesnac, with example applications from the tire industry. The aim is to provide smart solutions in rubber mixing that can achieve the best quality of tire components and the best utilisation of the mixing equipment. This should lead to a reduction in the mixing room operating cost and an improvement in tire performance.

12:30 - HYDROPLUS innovative calendering concept 4.0 with 3D real engineering plant model
Mario Sacchi, technical and commercial manager, Comerio Ercole SpA, ITALY
Simone Aicardi, plant engineering manager, Comerio rcole SpA, ITALY
HYDROPLUS innovative calendering concept 4.0 is an integrated solution for high-quality performance, productivity and safety. Fully integrated with 3D innovative engineering concept based on a real virtual plant model. It is now possible to experience an incredible new engineering experience based on a real model of the product under construction in order to substantially reduce installation times and costs and achieve the best efficiency of all processes.

12:50 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Joe Padovan, University of Akron, USA

14:00 - AM in the tire industry – hype or viable production method?
Augustin Niavas, business development manager tooling, EOS GmbH, GERMANY
AM is slowly but surely becoming an interesting and complementary alternative to established technologies for tire mould manufacturing, thanks to the progress made in the last 10 years in terms of material, quality of the process, reliability of the systems and productivity increase. The combination of these factors associated with the increasing level of complexity in the moulds and the fast turnover required seems to offer a perfect match for the AM USPs. But is this really the case? Which application are more suitable today? Is the integration of this technology possible in the current supply chain?

14:20 - Laser texturing: improve your brand's visibility
Adrien Rodrigues, laser product manager, GF Machining Solutions, SWITZERLAND
Distinct branding is crucial in the tire industry and is ensured by the AgieCharmilles LASER P 1200 U Tire, dedicated to tire moulds. Laser texturing allows multiple reproduction of unique textures, increases contrasts, ensures better visibility of the brand and helps increase the product’s value perception. Features include: fully digitised process; art to part, any design possible; optimal cost control; 100% repeatable process.

14:40 - Metal 3D printing technology for tire mould series production
Ralf Frohwerk, global head of business development, SLM Solutions, GERMANY
SLM Solutions' new metal 3D printer helps create components in a quicker, more cost-effective and precise way than traditional machining. The company continuously improves the productivity of its process to improve the commercial breakeven point vs. conventional production. The tire industry uses the metal 3D printing process to create innovative new tire tread designs for prototyping and series mass production as well as for the tire retreading process.

15:00 - Groundbreaking water-based permanent mould release for efficient tire production
Dr Susanne Deuerlein, project manager, Münch Chemie International GmbH, GERMANY
The main drivers in the tire industry are ever higher quality standards and continuously increasing productivity. Tire curing is the most critical step within the production process, as the green tire already holds over 90% of the value created during compounding and assembly. Due to the above-mentioned customer demands, the team at Münch Chemie International has developed an innovative permanent mould coating that allows several thousand demouldings, thereby minimising the manufacturers’ effort and costs. The use of this water-based coating greatly increases productivity due to faster work cycles and longer mould service lives while ensuring best quality of the tires.

15:20 - 15:40 - Break

15:40 - The science of anti-tack
Edward Juline, VP sales and marketing, Sasco Chemical Group LLC, USA
The use of anti-tack has evolved greatly in the last 15 years, with very precise formulations and the use of advanced mixing and monitoring equipment to ensure consistent application to prevent sticking during transport/storage and eliminate downstream process issues. We have discovered during the last 25 years of producing anti-tack that the selection of an anti-tack is not the simple purchase of an additional process aid, but rather the engineering selection of an ingredient that can have just as much of an effect on the final compound as any other active ingredient in the compound.

16:00 - Control the mould cleaning process by using dry ice microparticles
Ahmet Erdogan, global key account manager tire, Cold Jet Europe BVBA, BELGIUM
Build-up of cured material and mould release agents causes sticking moulds, blemishes and unwanted flash on final parts, making them unusable and requiring line shutdown for cleaning. Dry-ice microparticle blast cleaning offers an in-place, online, quick and effective way to clean without damaging expensive moulds.

16:20 - Multi-physics multi-scale tire development process
Daniel Kreise, sales director, industrial equipment, Dassault Systèmes, FRANCE
As requirements, targets and constraints (due to customer needs, quality, regulation, etc.) become more and more stringent, tire manufacturers and suppliers experience the multiplication of their qualification cycles with an increasing risk of failure. Seamless Qualification, a Dassault Systèmes Industry Solution Experience, allows users to minimise validation costs and warranty issues, providing a flexible testing and simulation governance process. This presentation will describe Dassault Systèmes' understanding of the tire development process, focusing on multi-physics and multi-scale simulations to meet your business goals.

16:40 - 'On-machine' approach: benefits for the tire manufacturing industry
Jens Brusis, strategic account manager, Rockwell Automation, GERMANY
On-machine applications support new control design philosophy that moves industrial controls and hardware closer to the application on the machine. New machine controls with enhanced environmental characteristics, plug-and-play electronics and modular wiring connections offer real cost savings when designing, building and installing, in addition to simplified testing, reliability and faster maintenance/repair. Ease of design, fewer prints to draw, less layout and less customisation all lead to decreased time and money to develop solutions. Reusable solutions allow increased standardisation. Simpler and faster reconfigurability has a strong impact on the build and commissioning phases. The result is considerably easier troubleshooting and shorter mean-time-to-repair.

17:00 - Innovative roll design for high silica content
Martin Grosskreutz, product manager, Karl Buch, GERMANY
For more than 160 years Karl Buch has stood for highest quality rolls and also for innovative roll materials and designs. For quiet, fuel-efficient tires with a good grip, more and more silica is being used in today’s tire production. Even the high-chromium rolls from Karl Buch, which are normally much better in wear resistance than rolls from other cast materials, provide fewer advantages in combination with high silica content. A new compound roll with a proprietary shell material provides excellent wear resistance in combination with optimised temperature distribution on the surface in mixing mills.

14:00 - 16:50 - S3 - Tires of the future - pneumatic or non-pneumatic, new concepts in design and performance, and tire for electric vehicles
London/Madrid (Red)

Moderator
Rudi Hein, executive advisor standards and regulations, Bridgestone Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), BELGIUM

14:00 - Grip values (µ) distribution on wet public roads
Frederic Biesse, tire performance analysis expert, Michelin, FRANCE
The grip level on worldwide public roads is generally measured and monitored by several devices (British pendulum, grip tester, etc.), introduced initially by road makers. On the other side, tire makers often use other measurements: vehicle braking or analytical trailer, with reference tires. The aim of our study was to have an estimation of the grip level distribution on public roads by analytical trailer measurements (used for threshold and grading regulations in the tire industry). These trailer results were then compared with more traditional road-monitoring devices, to build a global overview of this distribution.

14:25 - A tire to reduce vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift
Dr Yuji Kodama, general manager, The Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd, JAPAN
A tire that reduces the aerodynamic drag and lift of a vehicle is proposed in this presentation. The drag and lift coefficients of the vehicle were calculated by numerical simulation. Aerodynamic drag was reduced 2-3% and lift coefficients were drastically decreased. Experimental tests on an actual vehicle were also carried out to check the simulation results. The drag coefficient was decreased and vehicle stability, which is related by lift force of the vehicle, was improved by 'fins' placed on the sidewall of the tire.

14:50 - Automated and driverless vehicles – an overview
Dr Mohammad Behroozi, research fellow, University of Birmingham, UK
Vehicle automation is a very active area of research and has the potential to change how we travel in the future. This presentation introduces automation and its potential impacts.

15:15 - 15:35 - break

15:35 - Mobile applications to enhance safety on vehicles and tires
Om Kutre, scientist, Apollo Tyres Ltd, INDIA
In the current technological world, development is in all areas of engineering but mainly vehicles, computers, materials science, electronic systems, manufacturing, telecommunication and road/terrains, plus vehicle development in forecasting for self-driving vehicles, drive-assist systems, HUD (head-up displays), vehicle-to-vehicle communication, etc. Tire designs need to deliver more challenging performance for vehicles and customer requirements, revolutionising tire technologies to be more intelligent and customer informative. Mobile applications enhance customer information and knowledge on tire performances (safety, pressure, temperature, mileage, etc.) for tire-road applications any time. Therefore, future tire design is more innovative and challenging.

16:00 - Trends and techniques for light-weighting in passenger tires
Bruce Lambillotte, vice president - technical consulting, Smithers Rapra, USA
The issue of light-weighting in tires has been of historical interest for materials cost control. However, automotive OEM demands for improved rolling resistance and weight control, plus current replacement market labelling requirements, have further heightened focus on the issue. This study will employ a tire analysis database to study light-weighting in passenger tires with the objectives of identifying: whole tire vs. individual component perspectives, target tire components for weight reduction, component volume vs. density trade-offs, weight reductions: rubber components vs. reinforcements.

16:25 - Solving the problem of the basic tire design flaw
Dieter Disselbeck, head of new technologies (retired), Hoechst AG, GERMANY
The public definition of a 'serious tire problem' by NTSB calls for its solution. Tire failures have led to a high number of accidents and impose enormous human, social and economic cost on society. The basic problem of tire design is weak and unreliable material bonding. For physical reasons, the actual design cannot meet the increasing requirements. Solving the problem is a strong mechanical bonding system. A network structure encases the tire body and ensures stability. The new concept in design has been proved to provide better products and has great potential to save life, costs and resources.

10:30 - 17:15 - S4 - Developments in polymers, fillers and additives for better tire performance (Part 1)
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderator
Gary Crutchley, lead consultant, Smithers Rapra Ltd, UK

10:30 - Innovative molecular simulation for designing high-wear-resistant rubber materials
Dr Masato Naito, manager, Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd, JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has developed a new materials development technology called Advanced 4D Nano Design. It will be used for the development of high-performance rubber materials. This technology has made it possible to analyse rubber chemicals at a molecular level using highly advanced molecular simulations and analyses. In this presentation we will introduce our recent development of high-wear-resistant rubber using this technology, which focuses on the nano structure of the polymer/silica interface.

10:55 - Filler structure dynamics of surface-functionalised carbon black-sSBR compounds
Dr Lewis Tunnicliffe, product development scientist, Birla Carbon, USA
Surface-functionalised carbon blacks used in combination with functionalised sSBR have shown significant improvements in tread compound viscoelastic properties and predicted tire performance. The nature of the filler-polymer interaction and filler network dynamics in such compounds are considered. Studies on thixotropic behaviour in the uncured state show that surface modification of carbon black dramatically suppresses the thermal flocculation of filler particles, resulting in reduced filler networking. This results in favourable modifications to bulk viscoelasticity and is strongly correlated with increasing bound rubber content upon surface modification. Polymer dynamics at the filler-elastomer interface are probed using broadband dielectric spectroscopy.

11:20 - Influence of ZnO and functionalised SBR on tire tread properties
Prof Anke Blume, head of the Elastomer Technology and Engineering chair, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
The effect of silica-filled compounds of two different functionalised SSBRs on the dynamic and mechanical properties of a silica-reinforced tire tread compound is discussed and compared with a reference compound that contains unmodified SSBR. To investigate the effect of ZnO on the properties of the silica-reinforced tread compound, a series of compounds have been prepared in which ZnO was added at a later stage. The results show the significant potential of one of these modified SBRs in particular, to reduce the rolling resistance of tire treads made thereof, with no major change in wet grip.

11:45 - Combining resins, functionalised SSBR and bio-plasticiser for improved tread compounds
Dr Fabio Bacchelli, technical manager, tire, Versalis, ITALY
Since fuel economies and the need to preserve the environment have become major drivers for the development of tire tread compounds, it has been observed that the use of traction resins in compositions that also contain triglyceride vegetable oils and silica as reinforcing filler provide improvement in dynamic and wear properties. In this frame, tread compounds based on combinations of hydrocarbon or terpene resins, selected bio-sourced plasticisers and functionalised SSBR are discussed in terms of mechanical and traction properties, also paying attention to vulcanisation kinetics, chemical issues and resistance to heat ageing.

12:10 - Rubber needs protection
Melanie Wiedemeier-Jarad, technical service manager, Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
The presentation focuses on para-phenylene-diamine as an anti-degradant in natural rubber (NR).

12:35 - In-chain and chain-end functionalised S-SBR for silica-filled tire tread compounds
Dr Norbert Steinhauser, senior technical manager, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Functionalisation of solution SBR (S-SBR) with suited polar groups is a powerful tool for improving the rolling resistance properties of tire tread compounds. S-SBRs with different locations of functional groups were prepared: (I) one functional group per polymer chain with the functional group located at the chain end; (II) several functional groups per polymer chain with the functional groups distributed along the chain. The properties of silica-filled tire tread compounds containing these S-SBRs were examined.

13:00 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Asahi Kasei's S-SBR development strategy and update for eco tires
Hiromi Nakafutami, general manager synthetic rubber development department, Asahi Kasei Corporation, JAPAN
Asahi Kasei's S-SBR for eco tires is used for many kinds of tread of performance tires. The company provides functionalised S-SBR, which can bring significant benefit for the balance between fuel efficiency, grip performance and improved high wear resistance by introducing unique functionalisation and high molecular weight technologies. The presentation will introduce Asahi’s development strategy, the latest development in S-SBR and, especially, the mechanism of improvements.

14:25 - Graphenes: a review of their functions and applications
Dr Fred Rumpf, technology director, Cabot Corporation, USA
Graphene-based materials are multifunctional carbons with a unique thin platelet morphology that can radically improve elastomer compound performance and functionality. Cabot is developing the capability to produce, handle, characterise and compound graphenes for tires and industrial applications. Graphenes can be produced by a variety of processes, and their properties such as shape, aspect ratio and surface chemistry vary accordingly. Our initial compound testing focused on blends of graphenes and carbon black in elastomers for demanding, high-value applications. Low loadings of graphenes are shown to deliver high electrical conductivity and stronger rubber. This presentation will review these functions and applications.

14:50 - New functionalised SSBR with improved rolling resistance/grip balance
Dr Sven Thiele, R&D leader process and product development anionic, Trinseo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Polymer solutions for energy-efficient summer and winter tires were developed at Trinseo and are now available as experimental grades. Typically, high-performance functionalised SSBR grades are difficult to process. Therefore, an alternative highly functionalised clear (oil-free) SSBR grade was developed, which indicates good extrusion characteristics and relatively low polymer-silica formulation viscosity. As the new Trinseo experimental grades also indicate good wear characteristics, consumers should enjoy long-term benefits from corresponding tire families.

15:15 - NR-silica masterbatches: the easy processing way to high-quality silica compounds
Dr Joachim Bertrand, director, Behn Meyer Europe GmbH, GERMANY
The presentation will dicuss: NR + Silica + Silane: advantages and challenges of this compound technology; basics of silica compounding; NR-Si-MB: the solution to the silica processing problems; lab programme with various contents of silica in NR, mixing cycle variations and latest results; conclusions and visions for future tire projects involving the NR-Si masterbatches.

15:40 - 16:00 - Break

16:00 - Rhenocure DR – a new secondary accelerator for rubber
Dr Hermann-Josef Weidenhaupt, technical service manager, Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Diphenyl guanidine is the most used secondary accelerator in rubber compounds, mainly in silica-filled passenger car tread compounds. A problem with DPG is that it releases carcinogenic aniline during the vulcanisation process. In a full silica tread compound, more than 99% of the aniline emission is related to DPG. For carbon black-filled compounds, the newly developed secondary accelerator Vulkacit DR, a polyethylene imine, can be used as an alternative to DPG. A sulphur and aromatic-free chemical, this product has no influence on the cross-linking density and cannot generate carcinogenic vulcanisation fumes.

16:25 - Investigation of the silane-polymer reaction in a model system
Masaki Sato, PhD student, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
Mercapto-silanes have received increased attention during recent years as a possible solution for finding a good balance between low rolling resistance and high wet grip in passenger car tire tread compounds. The use of mercapto-silanes enables a better silica dispersion state during the mixing compared with the conventional sulphide-silanes. But it also causes a higher Mooney viscosity and a shorter scorch time, which results in processing difficulties. Due to the fact that the silica-silane reaction has been deeply investigated but cannot explain these differences, the silane-polymer reaction should be evaluated in depth in the present study.

16:50 - Solvay new silica innovation combining high performance and fuel efficiency in tire
Dr Soline de Cayeux, business development manager, Solvay, FRANCE
Highly dispersible silica (HDS) makes a key contribution to the production of fuel-efficient tires, complying with global regulations on tires and vehicle fleets, and minimising the environmental impact of road transportation. To implement HDS technology in high- and ultra-high-performance passenger car tires, as well as truck tire tread, Solvay innovates to address the demanding performance targets. The company's newly industrialised HDS offers wear and rolling resistance improvement compared with existing solutions. These benefits are demonstrated in the passenger car and truck tire segments.

09:00 - 13:00 - S1 - Tire manufacturing Advances (Part 2)
London/Madrid (Red)

Moderator
Gerry Pol, sales director Europe, VMI Tire, NETHERLANDS

09:00 - Simplified integration of steel cord inspection system in breaker lines
Joachim Manz, managing director, Roland Electronic GmbH, GERMANY
In the past, there was a need for a special swivel mechanism in order to use the SIS system in steel cord cutting lines for breaker belts. With the brand-new angle control unit (ACU) the task of integration has now been drastically reduced. The new ACU provides a sensor bracket and angular adjusting function in a very compact format. Another fundamental advantage is that the ACUs are controlled directly from the SIS-G3 over the integrated local area network. Therefore a separate PLC device will no longer be necessary for angle adjustment.

09:20 - Track and trace in the tire manufacturing process
Andreas Hoell, technical industry manager, Sick AG, GERMANY
The challenge in tire production is to create a flow from a mixture of materials that is as efficient as possible and at the same time ensures traceability. Established identification solutions like handheld scanners, barcode scanners, image-based code readers and RFID read/write devices can be used for this purpose. The vision is 100% traceability, by minimised non-productive time for operators. At the same time, material tracking ensures optimised material and stock management and reduces production costs. In this session, we will discuss solutions for tire track and trace and system integrations in different PLC and IT systems.

09:40 - VMI Pixxel – an integrated vision platform for monitoring and guiding
Kees Janszen, R&D manager vision and interfacing, VMI Group, NETHERLANDS
The new VMI Pixxel vision system delivers improved performance for guidance and quality monitoring in VMI machinery for tire and rubber. At the heart of VMI’s innovations around vision and monitoring systems is a new smart camera offering higher levels of performance, better machine integration and greater robustness. VMI’s innovative technology will bring the industry a major step closer to the Industry 4.0 concept: a system that is both integrated and potentially enabled for online connectivity. VMI expects VMI Pixxel to help tire makers gain a competitive advantage by using output data to deliver auditable product quality information.

10:00 - New features for tire identification in production, distribution and logistics
Bernhard Lenk, head of T&L and tires, Datalogic Automation, GERMANY
Datalogic provides barcode readers based on vision technology called Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 to identify tires in each step of the process from first stage through to curing, sorting and test machines in production. They can also be used for warehouse management and e-commerce solutions and tire distribution. The STS400 provides high-performance reading with outstanding read rates to enable very high throughput of thousands of tires per day and full transparency of tracking and tracing each individual tire. New features include no code - no label, top and bottom reading, reading of DPM 2D-codes black on black, and reading under touching tires.

10:20 - Microwaves as another logical step in the tire manufacturing process
Daniel Kettner, sales director, ROmiLL, CZECH REPUBLIC
The possible use of microwaves in the rubber industry has been known for some time. For example, curing lines for the extruded profiles have microwave heating zones at their beginning, which significantly shortens the time of curing as well as the line itself. On the other hand, in the tire industry microwaves are seen very rarely and if they are present, their existence is bound by strict NDA. This presentation will show the benefits of using microwaves in the tire manufacturing process and why the corresponding companies are interested in keeping the technology a secret (NDAs are respected).

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Measurement capability testing methods for laser line triangulation sensors
Jeremy Garner, engineering manager, Starrett Bytewise, USA
Laser line triangulation sensors have been a vital tool in identifying geometry and visual defects during tire manufacturing for many years. They are widely accepted for geometric measurement in component extrusion, tire building and cured tire inspection. Several manufacturers of laser line triangulation sensors exist in the marketplace today, each with varying metrics to characterise their measurement capabilities. This paper provides methods best used to evaluate sensor measurement capability. It also provides a general overview of laser line triangulation technology along with its potential uses and limitations.

11:20 - Evolution of profile measurement
Dr Hartwig Suhr, physicist - tire measurement specialist, SDS Systemtechnik GmbH, GERMANY
The progress of online and offline profile measurement for semifinished products in the tire industry (tread, sidewall, etc.) will be presented. The focus will be on the current situation and expectations for the future.

11:40 - Next generation: new EPLEXOR 500 N high-force DMA – the future of dynamic mechanical analysis
Dr Horst Deckmann, technical director, Netzsch Gabo Instruments GmbH, GERMANY
A brand-new high-force DMA system with optical deformations sensors for static and dynamic deformations will be presented. This highly sophisticated instrument line is equipped with digital force sensors. Sensitivity and resolution are improved. Dynamic mechanical thermal materials testing instruments with high resolution are increasingly gaining importance in basic research in the field of viscoelastic material properties. This technique is mainly applied in rubber, polymer science and industry (e.g. production and processing). Dynamic materials testing provides precise information about the viscoelastic mechanical properties including elastic moduli |E*| and viscoelastic damping tan d. Nowadays more and more applications (e.g. tires) require detailed knowledge of non-linear dynamic material properties for computer-aided construction. Only the DMA is able to acquire such data. In particular, high-force DMA systems with large dynamic deformation ranges help to analyse mechanical properties in the linear and non-linear deformation range. Netzsch Gabo's new DMA series is designed for these applications.

12:00 - Increasing safety at operating tire building machines – important aspects
Harald Schmidt, project manager, Sick AG, GERMANY
Tire building machines in operation are frequently subject to severe work accidents. Therefore it is advisable to increase the safety at these machines. However, due to the specific operating principle at these machines, an effective safety retrofit system must consider specific demands resulting from the tire building process. Starting from risk assessment, the presentation will highlight these specific demands and introduce a number of solutions that fulfil the requirements of efficient and safe operation of tire building machines.

12:20 - Increased uptime/optimised drive systems with Bosch Rexroth's intelligent solutions
Matthias Kummert, service business developer, Bosch Rexroth AB, SWEDEN
For the tire industry, uptime and productivity are extremely important. Bosch Rexroth offers the concept Hägglunds Inside Intelligence including Hägglunds CM, Hägglunds CMp and Hägglunds InSight Live. Many years of application and technical knowhow have been used to develop the intelligence that Bosch Rexroth offers today. Thanks to the ODiN intelligence, customers receive a health index, warnings, alarms and reports, and Bosch Rexroth can suggest preventive service actions and optimisation measures for the drive system. Learn how you can reduce your TCO, improve uptime and optimise your process.

12:40 - Manufacturing excellence in the rubber industry
Dr Saikat Das Gupta, chief scientist - vice president, HASETRI, INDIA
We are living in a global village now, and information technology (IT) has made life more comfortable for many of us. Every country is unique and has to plan an organised industry that suits most of the people. Customers at every level need quality at a competitive price and delivered as quickly as possible. Manufacturers are increasingly using IT solutions such as Enterprise Resource Planning and Manufacturing Execution Systems to enhance their productivity. This includes functions such as workflow management, quality control, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, activity-based costing and product lifecycle management.

13:00 - 14:00 - Lunch

09:00 - 17:15 - S2 - Developments in polymers, fillers and additives for better tire performance (Part 2)
Rom (Green)

Moderator
Dr Anna Kepas-Suwara, materials scientist, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK

09:00 - Halobutyl innerliners: key to maintaining tire performance/fuel efficiency
Jeff Valentage, global tire market development manager, ExxonMobil, USA
As government regulators and OEMs globally continue to strive for improved vehicle fuel economy while also balancing increased safety and customer demands, they are looking for cost-effective solutions to help meet these challenges without sacrificing performance. One solution already available to the industry today is improving tire air retention. Improving air retention helps maintain consistent in-use tire performance, boosts vehicle fuel economy and improves the overall consumer experience. The presentation will briefly cover: global regulatory trends, current testing practice versus real-world customer experience, tire innerliner trends, available technical solutions and in-use test results.

09:25 - Improving winter traction with naphthenic (green) tire oils
Dr Dr Mika Lahtinen, senior advisor, Nynas AB, SWEDEN
The winter tire market is growing at a 4.4% YoY rate. Increasingly more countries have legislative measures to promote winter tire use. Winter traction is largely governed by tread rubber compounding. Requirements differ from summer tires: the compound must remain soft and flexible at subzero temperatures. However, it should exhibit sufficient stiffness in mild winter weather. Tire oil is an excellent tool to improve winter performance. In this paper we show that low-temperature stiffness of tread compounds can be significantly reduced by selecting tire oil appropriately. This leads to improved winter traction without significantly affecting traction in other conditions.

09:50 - Design of novel functionalised SSBRs for high-performance tires
Dr Luis Rodriguez-Guadarrama, tire research leader, Grupo Dynasol, SPAIN
This presentation introduces the Dynasol SSBR (functionalised and non-functionalised) portfolio for high-performance and ultra-high-performance tires. The functionalisation strategy to select functional groups in SSBRs is described, and the performance of functionalised SSBRs in vulcanised compounds filled with silica is presented.

10:15 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Benefits of active zinc oxide in heavy-duty tire formulation
Olivier Roumache, rubber technologist, Silox SA, BELGIUM
Active zinc oxide is well known to the technical rubber goods producers. In the last decade it has enabled them to reduce the amount of zinc oxide in their formulations. In natural rubber formulations such as heavy-duty tires, additional benefits are also visible: better tensile strength, improved tear, better ageing, etc. – all properties that may be beneficial to the tire without formulation change.

11:25 - The effect of rubber microstructure on the dynamic properties of tire tread
Dr Saikat Das Gupta, chief scientist - vice president, HASETRI, INDIA
Since the introduction of tire labelling, there has been a continuous effort to find suitable optimisation of the tire tread recipe with respect to rubber microstructure and filler type to obtain better physical as well as dynamic mechanical properties. Detailed work is being carried out to see the effect of the microstructure of synthetic rubbers on properties like static modulus, dynamic modulus, elongation and loss factors at different temperatures. This study was carried out on carbon-based and silica-based recipes as well as blend of carbon-silica rubber recipes.

11:50 - Silica morphology and functionality: enabling environmentally friendly sidewall performance
Timothy Okel, senior research associate, PPG Industries Inc, USA
Silica technology advances enable the continuing developmental evolution in environmentally friendly tires. This presentation covers pilot-scale follow-up work that systematically evaluated the impact of filler type and amount as well as rotor design on the productivity, processing and performance characteristics of a model sidewall formulation. The results show that an appropriate balance of carbon black, non-treated silica (i.e. Hi-Sil EZ160), treated silica (Agilon 400), along with modified formulations and mixing schemes, can provide further improvement in productivity, fuel efficiency and resistance to degradative forces.

12:15 - End-functionalisation of catalytic and anionic polybutadienes
Dr Thomas Rünzi, technical manager, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
It is widely known that high-cis polybutadienes exhibiting low glass transition temperatures perform the best among all polybutadienes in terms of energy dissipation. The polymerisation techniques applied are based on multi-component transition metal catalysts so that end-functionalisation reactions are rather complex. Certain polymerisation conditions and end-functionalisation reagents tailored to these requirements need to be applied in this case. Functionalisation of anionic polymers are more straightforward. We will further present functionalised lithium polybutadienes that match the performance of a high-cis NdBR but offers certain additional advantages.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Dr Wolfgang Pille-Wolf, principal scientist, Kraton Corporation, NETHERLANDS

14:00 - The interaction between tread enhancement additives and elastomers
Dr Wolfgang Pille-Wolf, principal scientist, Kraton Corporation, NETHERLANDS
For the last 10 years the utilisation of tread enhancement additives to influence the viscoelastic properties of PCR tire treads has increased. With the possibilities of the solution polymerisation process controlling the molecular architecture, an ever-increasing number of different types of elastomers have been realised by the rubber industry. This paper describes the effect of macro and microstructure of various elastomers on different TEA chemistries derived from simplified model mixtures, providing an insight into future TEA design. Consequently, a newly developed additive will be presented and its performance in typical PCR tread compounds will be discussed.

14:25 - Development of high-cis polybutadiene rubber grades
Dr Malte Wohlfahrt, leader ESBR/BR synthetic rubber R&D, Trinseo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Trinseo’s synthetic rubber business is expanding its product portfolio with high-cis polybutadiene rubber (HCBR) grades to answer the increased demand in the automotive industry for materials supporting fuel efficiency improvements in tires. An outlook on sources of hysteresis loss in tire compounds will be provided, as well as examples from neodymium-based initiator systems and functionalisation technology to counteract this.

14:50 - New method to support formulation adjustment for optimised tire performance
Thomas Chaussee, application lab manager, Solvay Silica, FRANCE
As part of a method aimed at evaluating the reactivity of silica surface with silica, a few techniques have been developed to better understand silanisation mechanism on silica in terms of kinetic, grafted ratio and nature. A link has been made with applicative results showing a possible correlation between the test and the optimum level of silane to achieve optimised performance in rubber. The technique and applicative results will be discussed. This new association of results should support faster formulation adjustment. Further development of this technique aimed at better understanding of silane reaction and interface structuration will be shown.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Performance of YL functionalised hydrocarbon resins in green tires
Chi Ta Tsai, R&D section manager, Yuen Liang Industrial Co Ltd, TAIWAN
YL functionalised resins are used in green tires, where they enhance grip performance and keep a good level of rolling resistance. They offer high aromaticity and well compatibility with the major rubber in tires. They play the role of tackifier, plasticiser, dispersing agent and Tg adjustment for tire compounds. These resins are also used in a broad range of rubber goods such as conveyor belts, shoe soles and special rubber articles. We deliver innovative resin products and high flexibility in custom product co-design not only for tires but also for adhesives, coatings and ink application.

16:00 - Advanced rubbers from PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim for the tire industry
Denis Maximov, deputy chief process engineer, polymer materials, PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, RUSSIA
The presentation discusses the main challenges that synthetic rubbers producers face during production for the tire industry. An analysis of brand assortment and production volume of PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim was performed over the last five years. The presentation will also discuss the results of the company's research and development and pilot work in the field of butadiene, styrene-butadiene and halobutyl rubber production. The advantages and special aspects of processing of new grades of synthetic rubbers will also be discussed.

16:25 - AFM visualisation of interfaces in rubber compounds
Dr Anna Kepas-Suwara, materials scientist, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK
In tire tread formulations, rubbers and fillers are blended to achieve optimum tread properties. The bulk properties of these composite materials are influenced by the properties of both the polymer-polymer and the polymer-filler interfaces. These can have a significant impact on the key characteristics of the compounds. A better understanding of these interactions could lead to enhanced design of tire tread formulations with improved mechanical and physical properties. This study uses AFM visualisation and characterisation of the polymer-filler interface in silica and carbon black-filled single polymers and the polymer-polymer interface in unfilled blends.

16:50 - Zinc oxide order of addition effect on NXT Z* 45 compounds
Dr Daria Sitnikova, application development engineer, Momentive Performance Materials, GERMANY
With the numerous new materials being offered to the tire industry today, controlling the various reactions to optimize compound properties is challenging. One of the most useful ways to meet the challenge is by controlling the order of addition of key ingredients. Zinc oxide can affect compound properties depending on when it is added to the mix. Zinc oxide added in an early mixing stage can significantly reduce silanization, processability, silane/polymer interaction parameter, and critical dynamic properties such as Tan d at 60oC. When using standard sulfur silanes, adding zinc oxide in the first mixing stage is necessary to keep the compound from sticking to the processing mill. However, blocked mercapto silanes eliminate the sticking problem. The paper shows how strategic order of addition of zinc oxide can significantly enhance compound properties using mercapto or blocked-mercapto silanes.

09:00 - 17:40 - S3 - Regulations and compliance standards, the move to realistic testing and mathematical prediction
Europa 3 & 4 (Yellow)

Moderator
Dr Gerald Potts, CEO/CTO, TMSI LLC, USA

09:00 - Chip-and-cut mechanism in the lab – behaviour of tire tread in the field
Dr Radek Stocek, head of R&D, PRL Polymer Research Lab, CZECH REPUBLIC
The chip-and-cut methodology is based on the experimental determination of the fracture data with respect to real broadly varied tire loading conditions by using new lab testing equipment. The exact mechanisms that are affecting the tire tread while in service – such as dynamic impacts, frictional sliding and abrasion caused by hard asperities – are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the measured data is related to the surface and internal structures of the tested specimen by using computer tomography (CT). In conclusion, we introduce the numerically quantified properties of rubber blends, describing their resistance against CC behaviour.

09:25 - Rolling resistance SAE 2452 versus ISO 28580
Markus Oertiker, project manager, TS TestingService GmbH, GERMANY
Rolling resistance and the resulting fuel economy has been the key topic of the last 10 years in the tire industry. This presentation compares the coast-down method of SAE 2452 with the rolling resistance standard ISO 28580, which is currently the most-used standard for tire tyre approval and labelling requirements worldwide. The presentation will also look into the different drive cycles around the world and the resulting differences in the results.

09:50 - Swiss knife or tool box? How to evaluate tire characteristics
Christian Bachmann, manager - tire technology, FKA Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen, GERMANY
Tire characteristics are manifold and strongly dependent on various operating and boundary conditions such as excitation frequency or temperature. Identification of the characteristics of interest, usually involves the application of laboratory test rigs, which simplify certain operating conditions, e.g. replacing the road surface with a sandpaper-coated drum or flat belt. This presentation will introduce diverse state-of-the-art ways to identify certain tire characteristics and assess the different challenges that occur. Various types of laboratory test rigs and on-road measurement options as well as the applied sensor technologies are introduced and discussed using dedicated examples.

10:15 - Rubber-ice friction laboratory testing: effect of multi-scale roughness
Dr Ari Tuononen, academy research fellow, Aalto University, FINLAND
Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g. tires on icy roads. This study uses in-situ white light interferometry to analyse ice surface topography during rubber friction testing. The method helps to understand the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualisation and quantitative measurement of ice roughness at different length scales. A multi-scale rubber friction theory by Bo Persson was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient. These results create new possibilities to improve tire grip on icy roads.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Reproduction of real road driving behaviour on a flat belt
Dr Jürgen Bredenbeck, managing director, A&D Europe GmbH, GERMANY
A&D started to support the automotive and tire testing industry with a moving belt system for wind tunnel application some years ago. A&D has a depth of experience with different kinds of flat-belt tire testing rigs that have in common high driving stability, high responsiveness and high accuracy on force measurement. A&D has investigated the reproducibility of real road driving behaviour on a flat-belt tire testing rig. Some examples of the taken measurements will be introduced.

11:25 - Torque-induced modal response of tires
Steven Huggins, test and simulation engineer, Global Center for Automotive Performance Research, USA
With the development of advanced vehicle control systems and electric vehicles, the importance of understanding the dynamic coupling between the wheel torque and other tire responses is increasing. This work will present the lateral and longitudinal force response of a rolling tire from a random torque input up to 100Hz on a flat-track tire test machine. To evaluate the torque effect, modal response results will be given for the tire in multiple steady-state conditions including vertical load, slip angle, inclination angle, roadway velocity and torque offset for a variety of tires (passenger, performance, light truck and competition).

11:50 - Representative test surfaces for tire force and moment testing
Jonathan Darab, director, Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation, USA
The purpose of this presentation is to research and analyse important surface texture properties and their relevance in selecting and creating custom road surfaces for indoor tire force and moment testing. The presentation will develop the importance of these characteristics through data comparison of outdoor test surfaces, standard indoor test surface and custom indoor test surfaces. Specifically, the work includes the evaluation of macro and micro textures via the Ergun and Persson models, as well as direct comparisons between spatial power spectral densities of the various indoor and outdoor surfaces.

12:15 - Parameters influencing real road rolling resistance of truck tires
Oliver Sipply, research assistant, Institute for Automotive Engineering (IKA) RWTH Aachen University, GERMANY
Tire rolling resistance measurements are normally performed indoors on drum test machines. In the laboratory all environmental parameters can be kept within a small, standardised range, which ensures highly repeatable and comparable results. But in the real world, the tire runs under varying environmental conditions. The road curvature is almost even but each road structure has a different stiffness and roughness. Also, air and road temperature and rolling velocity vary compared with the laboratory. In this investigation, IKA’s Farep mobile tire test rig is used to determine parameters influencing the rolling resistance of truck tires.

12:40 - Real data tire model fitting, application on Pacejka 5.2
Arnaud Dufournier, CEO, Dufournier Technologies, FRANCE
Anne-Sophie Girard-Guichon, software engineer, Dufournier Technologies, FRANCE
The tire model is a major domain for car makers, tire manufacturers or racing teams. They are mostly fitted on data generated on the bench. Fitting on real data is necessary to be more realistic, but is more difficult and generally inaccurate. The presentation will show how to succeed from experiment design to data fitting through data processing on an example Pacejka 5.2.

13:05 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Prediction of tire dry grip by LAT 100
Marzieh Salehi, PDEng, Twente University, NETHERLANDS
One of the key considerations for any vehicle is safety. Tires are the only contact area between a vehicle and the ground. Traction, or tire grip, is a determining factor for transmitting all forces to the road. Lack of sufficient friction between the tire and pavement increases the risk of car accidents. Since friction is a complex phenomenon, it is difficult to predict tire behaviour on the road. By using the LAT 100 in a laboratory, the coefficient of friction was measured under a wide range of test conditions on various surfaces.

14:25 - Three-dimensional printing in rubber friction studies
Mona Mahboob Kanafi, PhD student, Aalto University, FINLAND
Three-dimensional printing is a powerful tool for creating customised designs from various materials. Yet it still hasn’t found the right application in tire/road interactions. For the first time, we have studied the practicality of using 3D-printed substrates in rubber friction experiments. In this presentation, we will provide answers to the two main questions: 1. Can we use 3D-printed replicas of road pavements as the countersurface, when testing the frictional performance of different rubber compounds? 2. How can 3D-printed randomly rough surfaces help us get an insight into the texture effects on rubber friction?

14:50 - Optical measurement of tire deformation focused on transient handling properties
Pavel Sarkisov, PhD candidate, Technische Universität Dresden, GERMANY
Development of driver assistance systems requires an understanding of tire behaviour under dynamic load in longitudinal and lateral directions up to 100% slip. Stereocamera-based optical measurements of a rolling tire have provided understanding of the tire deformation, such as tread shear, carcass lateral and longitudinal deflection, bending and shear of its cross-sections. It was found that consideration of several important mechanical properties and effects of a rolling tire in a physical model provides a qualitatively valid simulation in the different tire motion modes, all of which cannot be reasonably covered by the existing empirical models.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Winter tire testing – a test manager's nightmare
Jukka Antila, technical director, Test World, FINLAND
Winter tire testing requires winter conditions, which are available only in certain months and locations, but never being fully secure there either. All this causes delays, costs and uncertainty for the development. But there is a solution: indoor testing. Winter tires need results not only on snow and ice, but also wet and dry, which now can be done under the same roof to speed up the development cycle.

16:00 - Bringing accuracy and repeatability to tire testing
Dr James Cuttino, president & CEO, Camber Ridge LLC, USA
Measurement of tire forces and moments are subject to tradeoffs in data quality. Conventional indoor machines are repeatable but cannot reproduce the frictional effects of real pavements. Proving grounds suffer from poor repeatability and precision. Camber Ridge has created a facility combining the fidelity of a proving ground with the environmental controls of a laboratory. An autonomous sled accurately positions a test tire while translating it over an indoor paved oval at operating speeds. This presentation will discuss sources of error in measurement techniques and quantify improvements in both accuracy and repeatability in tire data obtained from this facility.

16:25 - Pavement texture and unevenness influence on tire rolling resistance
Prof Jerzy Ejsmont, professor, Technical University of Gdansk, POLAND
Beata Świeczko-Żurek, Ph.D., Technical University of Gdansk, POLAND
The paper deals with the influence of road surface texture and unevenness on rolling resistance of light and heavy vehicle tires. Results of numerous road and laboratory measurements performed at the Technical University of Gdansk are presented. The interface between tire tread and road surface is described, including a partial enveloping phenomenon that must be accounted for if road texture is correlated with tire rolling resistance. Oslo influence of road surface unevenness on energy losses in tire structure is described. The most important practical and theoretical problems related to road measurements of tire rolling resistance are discussed.

16:50 - Safety, durability and forensic analysis of failed tires
Dr Prasenjit Ghosh, senior engineer (dy. general manager), HASETRI, INDIA
Tire safety is usually part of a complex relationship involving the tire itself, human beings,vehicle or service equipment and other external elements. There are two primary areas of tire safety that pertain to failure: tire servicing and maintenance, and on-vehicle, in-service conditions. Tire durability is the structural integrity of the tire in service. Tire failure is directly related to the tire's durability and applications. Failure analysis of a tire is important for making modern automobiles safer and more durable. Some of the elements of tire safety, basic mechanics and factors pertinent to tire durability will be discussed.

17:15 - Direct estimation of tire contact features using strain-based intelligent tire
Hojong Lee, graduate student, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
In this study, diverse tire contact parameters were estimated by using strain-based intelligent tire. Intelligent tire used for this study has more than three strain sensors attached to its innerliner along the tire lateral direction. Cornering and braking tests were performed on the Flat-Trac test rig while measuring circumferential strains simultaneously. Several regressors were extracted from measured signals and used to estimate corresponding contact parameters: slip angles, slip ratios, contact forces. Regression results agree well with measurements, showing considerable promise for direct estimations of tire contact features based on strain measurements.

09:00 - 15:40 - S4 - New characteristics of tire cords and steel wires
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderators
Dr Kurt Uihlein, director marketing & development, Cordenka GmbH & Co KG, GERMANY
Stijn Himpe, VP technology rubber reinforcement, Bekaert, BELGIUM

09:00 - Atmospheric plasma coating of tire reinforcing materials
Dr Frederic Siffer, principal engineer - reinforcement technologies, Goodyear, LUXEMBOURG
Tires are complex composite materials made of rubber and reinforcing materials. New methods for bonding tire reinforcing materials to compound are constantly sought to expand existing technology and achieve advancements in tire properties. An atmospheric plasma polymerisation process is being investigated as a new technique for depositing a thin polymerised coating onto tire cords. Plasma polymerisation experiments were conducted on steel filaments using precursors such as methylene chloride, myrcene and limonene with argon as the ionisation gas. The effects of plasma coating variables on coating chemistry and rubber adhesion will be presented, as well as potential industrial applications.

09:25 - Plasma treatment of polymeric single end cord for adhesion promotion
Andre Louis, product development engineer, Apollo Tyres Global R&D BV, NETHERLANDS
A plasma coating was applied to polymeric single end cords to promote adhesion to unvulcanised rubber. An atmospheric plasma jet was used in a pilot-scale treatment line to coat polymeric cord surfaces with an adhesive layer. The focus was on the application of sulphuric precursors on non-dipped polymeric cord. Results and experiences as well as the main development steps of this research project will be discussed. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of the resulting cord/rubber interface in comparison with the industrial standard will be demonstrated.

09:50 - Endless possibilities with hybrid reinforcement cord technology
Sander Nieuwenhuijzen, product manager, Teijin Aramid BV, NETHERLANDS
Today's focus on reducing tire weight increases the use of aramid light weight reinforcement solutions. Full aramid cords can be rather stiff for the dynamic conditions in a tire, and solutions are often found in the use of hybrid cord technology. Variations in cord construction or process parameters allow the design of a cord with the desired behaviour. The possibilities are almost endless. Selecting the right combination gives the cord the properties that it needs at every stage of the tire lifecycle, and takes full advantage of the high performance that the aramid yarn provides.

10:15 - Extra-high-tenacity and high-denier reinforcement on carcass weight reduction
Glenn Lim, technology director, Performance Fibers, HONG KONG
Tire manufacturers have come to rely on carcass weight reduction as one of multiple ways to reducing rolling resistance. This study looks at applying extra-high-tenacity and high-denier PET reinforcement to reduce overall carcass weight. Extra-high tenacity applies the concept of using a finer-denier 1300D to replace a 1500D PET in carcass without sacrificing ply strength and safety. High denier applies the concept of using a coarser-denier 3000D to replace a 1500D PET in carcass through carcass ply reduction. Both studies will also address overall impact on PCR tire performances through indoor tests.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Aqueous dispersion of functionalised liquid polybutadiene for textile treatment
Dr Jean-Marc Monsallier, director - rubber market, Total Cray Valley, FRANCE
Cray Valley has developed aqueous dispersion of functionalised polybutadiene to be used in place of traditional emulsion treatment for textile-to-rubber adhesion. That dispersion leads to good interaction with polar and non-polar material. It also provides good compatibility with vinyl pyridine or styrene butadiene latexes and good affinity with rubber. Recently, investigations have led to increasing pressure on manufacturers to develop new emulsion treatment without resorcinol formaldehyde. The aqueous dispersion of functionalised polybutadiene provides a less complex and more environmentally acceptable formulating alternative to RFL.

11:25 - VP latex – an insight into capabilities and technology
Dr Sören Butz, head of technical service industry team textile, Synthomer Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
VP latex is a key component for the RFL (resorcinol-formaldehyde latex) dip, serving as a crucial bonding agent between the rubber and the reinforcing fibre, which find their main application in cords for tires, conveyer belts, V belts, hoses and air springs. The presentation will review the global VP latex demand landscape and provide an insight into the VP latex technology. General product compositions as well as relevant technical key functionalities will be discussed with special focus on the interface adhesion.

11:50 - Environmentally friendly resorcinol-formaldehyde-free adhesive systems for fiber-rubber composites
Dr Qasim Shaikh, development manager, Mehler Engineered Products GmbH, GERMANY
Textile fibers are commonly treated by a resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) coating to obtain desired adhesion to the rubber matrix. Due to recent regulations there is an immediate need to look for alternative cross-linking systems. Our work deals with the development of RF-free dip coating formulations, consisting of VP, SBR, NBR and CR latex dispersions along with water-dispersible resin and cross-linkers. These water-based, environmentally friendly dip coating formulations are applied in a single dipping process to pre-activated PET and aramid yarns and fabric reinforcements, resulting in enhanced adhesion to NR/SBR, NR, NBR, EPDM and CR rubber compounds.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Addressing energy and environmental aspects in tire cord production
Thomas Soika, sales manager, Benninger Zell GmbH, GERMANY
In the past, when energy costs and environmental considerations didn’t matter that much, machines were designed and built without respect of the same, just to ensure that the products met their required specifications: only production mattered. Fortunately, times have changed and environmental aspects as well as energy costs have become an issue. This has been the driving force for process and machine improvements. Sustainability and 'green footprint' are major concerns when setting up new facilities or upgrading existing ones – a close partnership between process owners and machine manufacturers is required.

14:25 - Twisted multi-ply polymeric monofilaments as tire reinforcement
Anil Ibis, R&D project leader, Kordsa Global, TURKEY
Monolyx, multi-ply polymeric monofilament cord for tire reinforcement provides extraordinary endurance and cut resistance performance, which makes it a distinctive protective tire reinforcement element. Monolyx has at least two single plies of monofilament fibres twisted together. Twisted monofilament cords can contain either polyamide or other various types of monofilament fibres.

14:50 - Ultra-high-strength Bekaert reinforcements for the future
Stijn Himpe, VP technology rubber reinforcement, Bekaert, BELGIUM
Bekaert will introduce the latest-technology ultra-high-strength steel reinforcements for tires, which is being commercialised now. These advanced constructions allow for thinner steel and skim compound plies and belts, which leads to a reduction in tire weight, as well as a reduction in tire rolling resistance and vehicle CO2 emissions.

15:15 - Economical tire cord converting – a comprehensive cost calculation
Oguz Karcier, head of product management, Lindauer DORNIER GmbH, GERMANY
The industry's main focus lies in the efficient production of a quality product. The weaving process is part of the complete process chain in tire cord production. Lindauer Dornier GmbH has set numerous milestones in order to optimise this process and reduce costs for customers. The presentation examines the weaving process and gives an overview of the costs incurred and their influencing factors.

09:00 - 16:50 - S5 - Greater tire durability and performance using green, replenishable, sustainable and recycled materials
Brussels (Purple)

Moderator
Prof Ulrich Giese, managing director, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V (DIK), GERMANY

09:00 - Development of the guayule tire
Zachary Walters, engineer, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company is the lead entity in a consortium working under a US$6.9m Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) grant to advance science in guayule plant genetics, agronomics, rubber production and utilisation of rubber and other co-products from guayule. A major part of the grant is the development of a guayule rubber-based tire, and significant progress has been achieved since the grant was initiated in 2012. This presentation will provide an update on the guayule rubber-based tire development, including a review of some of the challenges and accomplishments to date.

09:25 - Byproduct differences in guayule prepared by latex and solution processes
Dr Nicolas Sauty, polymer scientist, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Guayule resin contains a wide array of chemicals including terpenes and terpenoids, fatty acids and esters, and polysaccharides. Two processes – a latex process and a solution process – are utilised for the production of guayule rubber. These processes do not yield identical residual guayule resin components. Resin extracts from both processes were analysed by gas chromatography and their influence on rubber compounds was evaluated.

09:50 - Protein modifiers in guayule rubber compounds
Dr Colleen McMahan, research chemist, USDA-ARS, USA
Guayule is under development as a renewed agricultural crop in the USA, southern Europe and Australia. As processed, guayule natural rubber is low in proteins, and thus not equivalent to Hevea NR in some aspects. Commercial proteins might be useful in guayule formulations. Here, a series of proteins (gelatin, soy, casein, zein, albumin, gluten, gliadin) were added to guayule as a latex blend. In general, protein addition reduced bulk viscosity and improved thermo-oxidative stability. Gel and green strength of the polymer-protein blends were also generally improved. Effects on vulcanisation and mechanical properties in compounds were dependent on the antioxidants used.

10:15 - Thermal treatment of guayule resin and use in compounding
Dr Nicolas Sauty, polymer scientist, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Crude guayule resin is known to be deleterious to rubber compound performance. However, it can be treated to to yield useful rubber additives under certain conditions. In this study, guayule resin was thermally treated at different temperatures, producing materials of various softening points. These materials were evaluated in rubber formulations as tackifiers.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Developing a model for sustainable passenger tires using guayule rubber
Dr Amy Landis, Thomas F. Hash ’69 Endowed Chair in Sustainable Development & Professor, Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, USA
Guayule, a perennial shrub that can be cultivated in southwestern USA, produces natural rubber that could be an ideal substitute for Hevea natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers currently used in tires. This talk will present a sustainability tool to evaluate the environmental, social and economic implications of a passenger tire containing guayule rubber components. The cradle-to-grave model evaluates all stages of tire production including guayule agriculture, rubber extraction, tire manufacture, tire use and end-of-life. This tool and our results can be used to set benchmark metrics against existing tires.

11:25 - Bio-based liquid rubber for tire formulation
Marcel Gruendken, technical manager, Kuraray Europe GmbH, GERMANY
Kuraray has developed a series of liquid rubber products with molecular weights ranging from a few thousand to 100,000. These polymers, which consist of isoprene, butadiene, styrene and a new, bio-based monomer Farnesene, can be used by rubber manufacturers to achieve improvements in processing and physical properties. The most valuable physical property enhancement liquid Farnesene rubber offers is reduction in tire rolling resistance, as well as a plasticising effect. The application of each liquid rubber product in tire formulations is explained in the presentation.

11:50 - Engineered polysaccharides: sustainable material development for reinforcing filler applications
Dr Christian Lenges, business development, DuPont Industrial BioSciences, USA
Polysaccharides are important biopolymers with a wide range of industrial and consumer applications. Historically, structural polysaccharides such as cellulose have been the backbone of early material science for many applications. Progress in recent years has focused on material design for filler applications. DuPont Industrial Biosciences is developing a new polysaccharide material platform with control of polymer architecture and morphology. This novel polymerisation process offers the unique opportunity of controlling the macro-molecular structure and material properties of primary particles and larger agglomerates. This presentation will describe first examples of polysaccharide-based materials as reinforcing fillers in various rubber composite applications.

12:15 - Advanced liquid hydrocarbon resins for green tires
Dr Jun Liu, manager application technology, Ruetgers Novares GmbH, GERMANY
Hydrocarbon resins have become an important additive for modification of hysteresis in tread formulations. Consequently, grip and rolling resistance can be significantly improved. The chemical composition and molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon resins are known to have an important impact on compatibility between resin and rubber, which fundamentally affects hysteresis and other physical mechanical properties of rubber. In this presentation we will introduce a series of low molecular hydrocarbon resins, discuss the relationship between their chemistry and application performance, and show the synergistic advantage of controlled molecular weight and proper chemical composition.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Regenerated rubber: vision for a green cost-effective future
Dr Brian Harrison, chief scientific officer, Rubreco, CANADA
Hurdon A. Hooper, chief administrative offier, Rubreco, CANADA
Rubreco is a New Brunswick-based company that has developed a rubber regeneration process that makes possible the recovery and reuse of the valuable constituents found in rubber waste from the tire manufacturing process and other industrial processes as well as end-of-life tires. This is the only process in the world to devulcanise and regenerate waste rubber. Tire manufacturers now have an opportunity to use waste from their own manufacturing process, which is a 'known' entity and well defined. Rubreco’s regeneration process makes possible the recovery of this valuable resource at a fraction of the cost of new rubber.

14:25 - Improving sustainability and performance in green tire tread formulations
Glenn Denstaedt, technical director - tire and rubber, Lehigh Technologies, USA
The use of high-performance renewable materials in low-rolling-resistance tire tread compounds is increasing globally, as tire companies strive to create the 'greenest tire' in terms of performance and sustainability. Optimised formulas using renewable micronized rubber powder (MRP) in silica-silane SSBR tread compounds can yield performance benefits specifically in terms of hysteresis. Information will be presented on compound formula optimisation for filler content, with the potential for removing carbon black from a mostly silica-containing tread. Micronised rubber powder can also be used to alter the compound Tg in formulas containing high Tg polymers.

14:50 - Continuous rubber recycling using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder
Dr Alessandro Gallo, R&D specialist, F.lli Maris SpA, ITALY
A new technology based on the twin-screw extruder is able to devulcanise the cured rubber, restoring its plasticity and allowing it to be processed again. It is based on a purely thermomechanical method, making no use of chemical agents. The recycled material can be reused as a raw material: it can be blended with virgin rubber (up to 50%) without significant loss of mechanical properties, or used alone for less demanding applications. This process has been tested and optimised for different kinds of elastomers, including tires.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Challenges of craddle to craddle loops in modern tire technology
Hans (J W) van Hoek, teacher, PhD student, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
When devulcanising ground passenger car tire rubber by a thermomechanical, devulcanisation aid supported process in a twin-screw extruder, visible particles remain, resulting in poor properties. Our study shows that these particles can be characterised by a low degree of devulcanisation, but also by a relatively high amount of silica agglomerates. A longer residence time results in a higher degree of devulcanisation with only a minor increase in polymer scission of these particles, whose size can then be considerably reduced during further processing. A minimum size of these particles is determined by the dispersibility of the filler agglomerates.

16:00 - Application of bio-based content for rubber products by ISO standard
Dr Masao Kunioka, project leader, Japan National Mirror Committee (NMC) on ISO/TC 45, JAPAN
Japan National Mirror Committee (NMC) on ISO/TC 45 is developing ISO 19984 parts 1-3 for determination of bio-based content for rubber products, to promote rubber products made of natural rubber and bio-based additives. Bio-based carbon content is determined based on the amount of carbon in the rubber product. Bio-based mass content is determined based on constituent mass amount. Bio-based content is used for the determination of bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission. Using bio-based rubber products contributes to a decrease in fossil energy consumption and fossil CO2 emission.

16:25 - Natural oils and tires: sustainability and performance
Cristina Bergmann, product manager process oil, Hansen & Rosenthal KG, GERMANY
In the last few years, efforts to reduce the environmental footprint of tires have been intensified by moving from fossil goods to more sustainable products based on biomass. This work describes the development and use of process oils based on renewable sources in tire compounds. The new bio-based products developed by Hansen & Rosenthal can achieve improvements in rolling resistance, wet grip and abrasion loss in comparison with the mineral oil-based product.

09:00 - 12:15 - S1 - The tire as a sensor for vehicle safety and control, in-service monitoring, non-contact tire identification, and supply of tire data to garage and internet
Brussels (Purple)

Moderator
Alan Bennetts, director, Bay Systems, UK

09:00 - Temperature measurements at the tire shoulder enable lower rolling resistance
Alan Bennetts, director, Bay Systems, UK
Presentation of data acquired from various tires – car and truck – showing the precise locations at which heat is being generated. Heat=Rolling Resistance.

09:25 - Intelligent tire market trends
Gary Crutchley, lead consultant, Smithers Rapra Ltd, UK
The prospective role of the intelligent tire will be the ability to provide tire-road information for vehicle control systems, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), as well as intelligent transportation networks and autonomous driving systems. Intelligent tire technologies are coming of age in an environment where vehicle OEMs are looking at every available means of meeting stricter emissions targets and fuel economy standards. Smithers Rapra's presentation will provide an overview of key market trends and latest technology developments driving the adoption of intelligent tires to 2025.

09:50 - The Internet of Tires – QR code marking
Dr Armin Kraus, managing director, 4JET Technologies GmbH, GERMANY
Tire engineers are raving about the technical possibilities of intelligent tires. Business experts rate it as the beginning of the era of the Internet of Tires and predict the rise of new business models. However, we have had a lot of marketing noise and very few real-use cases so far. Much ado about nothing? Laser-engraved QR codes on tires certainly have less exciting potential for engineers than RFID-based sensor technology does. However, OEMs seem to be convinced by the technology – it opens an alternative, stepwise approach to the Internet of Tires.

10:15 - RFID tire tags application in tire lifecycle management
Lanfei Dong, chief engineer, Mesnac (Mertc), CHINA
With the development of the Internet of Things, the tire industry is seeing an increasing demand for tire lifecycle management. Currently, the barcode and tire sidewall marking are the main methods for storing tire information. But these methods are not robust, since barcode or tire sidewall marking could be easily erased and damaged. In comparison, RFID tire tags present significant advantages in tire lifecycle management. As the main drafter of RFID tire tag standards in China and worldwide, Lanfei Dong will explain different scenarios demonstrating how RFID tire tags facilitate tire lifecycle management and contribute to the future of the smart tire.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Tire-road contact condition measurements by an intelligent tire
Arto Niskanen, doctoral student, Aalto University, FINLAND
Intelligent tires have been studied for decades. It has been shown that the different tire sensor technologies could provide vital information, especially for autonomous cars. In addition, more expensive and complex systems could be utilised in road monitoring applications. In this presentation, an intelligent tire equipped with an accelerometer is used to study the effect of tire-road contact conditions on measured accelerations on the tire inner liner.

11:25 - Smart Tire product development
Mike Sanislo, vice president, RFID systems, Computype, USA
The Smart Tire concept provides tire manufacturers with new opportunities to offer premium products differentiated by intelligence and sensors built directly into the tire, communicating data wirelessly through radio frequency identification (RFID). The speaker will provide an overview of a customised tire RFID product development process to include: the value proposition – proposed benefits in the plant and in the retail environment; simulation through finite elements modelling (FEM); prototype development, testing calibration of the FEM model; creating and executing a manufacturing plant pilot with commercial tires; commercialisation and launch; protection of intellectual property.

11:50 - Decoupling the tire-vehicle system through frequency-based dynamic substructuring
Matthew Clontz, graduate assistant, Center for Tire Research (CenTiRe), USA
One way to analyse the interaction of the tire and vehicle is through dynamic substructuring in the frequency domain. Dynamic substructuring refers to a class of techniques in which individual components (tire, suspension, etc.) are treated as 'substructures'. In the frequency domain, the frequency response functions (FRFs) of these substructures can then be either coupled together or decoupled from the assembled system. In the present work, these dynamic substructuring techniques are applied to decouple the tire substructure from an assembled quarter-car test rig.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

09:00 - 12:40 - S2 - Tire and vehicle modelling and the comparison with real tire test data
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderator
Prof Saied Taheri, professor and director, Virginia Tech, USA

09:00 - The latest developments in tire modelling at Jaguar Land Rover
Jan Prins, technical specialist, Jaguar Land Rover, UK
Mateo Gladstone, specialist engineer tire CAE & modelling, Jaguar Land Rover, UK
An overview of progress made with regard to tire modelling at Jaguar Land Rover, as well as plans for the future.

09:25 - Effects of temperature, roughness and wear on real-time MF modelling
Dr Flavio Farroni, CEO of MegaRide - applied vehicle research, University of Naples Federico II, ITALY
The physical modelling of tire-road interaction phenomena and the employment of advanced simulation tools developed by VDU research group and its spin-off, MegaRide, enable calculation of tire temperature local distribution and the adhesive and hysteretic components of friction. The cooperation between these instruments allows prediction of the modifications that a reduced tread thickness and a decreased strain energy loss cause to the overall vehicle performance. Latest developments in the field highlight the effects of the cited phenomena on the parameters of Pacejka's formulations, increasing the level of reliability of the simulations performed by real-time driving simulators.

09:50 - Modelling tire friction for passenger cars, trucks and aircraft
Dr Matthias Wangenheim, assistant director, Leibniz Universität Hannover, GERMANY
We present an FEA-based multiscale approach to predict tire friction on different dry and wet surfaces. The parameter range covered by our approach includes everything from passenger car tires in low-performance conditions up to aircraft landings with high speed and high loads. Model inputs are a surface description of the asphalt or concrete track, which is separated into different length scales, and viscoelastic material data in the form of a Prony series. Simulation results are coefficient of friction and real contact area. Model validation is shown by comparison with friction measurements with PC and aircraft tires.

10:15 - Tire strain measurement system using piezoelectric elements
Ammar Kubba, doctoral researcher, University of Birmingham, UK
Using piezoelectric transducers to measure interlayer tire strain is a promising technology providing it is responsive at 10s of kHz sampling rate range, which is essential to study tire behaviour under different loading and driving conditions, and to calculate tire strain by utilising mathematical integration. These strain values can be used to validate FE tire models. Tire driving conditions can be found from the tire strain measurements by positioning the piezoelectric sensors at different locations across the interlayer tire cross-section, such as measuring longitudinal strain, to find tracking and braking forces, and lateral strain to determine slip angles.

10:40 - Modelling the interaction between off-road tires and deformable terrains
Chrysostomos Bekakos, PhD student, Loughborough University, UK
A new modelling technique for the development of accurate detailed tire structures is being proposed. The interaction of a P235/75R17 with various terrains was investigated both numerically and analytically, and it has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on a deformable terrain. It is shown that the dynamic response of the rolling tire and its interaction with the deformable terrain is inherently complex and depends on many parameters, whereas it is proven that the overall performance of the off-road tires depends on significantly different parameters compared with the on-road tires.

11:05 - 11:25 - Break

11:25 - Parameters influencing the cornering stiffness and moments of radial tires
Dr Abdul Waheed Awan, lecturer, Staffordshire University, UK
Tire lateral forces and moments are important parameters in responsive vehicle handling. This depends on many factors including tire type and size, speed, vertical load, road condition, tire design parameters and inflation pressure. In this particular study, 3D parametric analysis is conducted on radial type tire 225/55 R17 to analyse the effect of inflation pressure, speed, tire load and series of design parameters on the lateral forces and moments of a tire. Results are discussed in terms of lateral forces and moments vs side slip angle for a range of design parameters and operating conditions.

11:50 - Measuring tire thermal states and their effect on tire performance
Henning Olsson, director, R&D, Calspan Corporation, USA
The effects of tire temperature on tire performance have been evaluated using novel measurement technologies developed at Calspan’s Tire Research Facility. By combining a multitude of thermal measurements, a holistic view of the thermal state of a tire can be generated. Different thermal states have been correlated to a tire’s static and dynamic force and moment characteristics. The results provide insight into how tire testing and tire modelling results and accuracy are affected. The method has also shown promising results in investigating the effect tire design and materials have on overall tire performance.

12:15 - Influence of road characteristics on different dynamic tire model simulations
Tobias Winkler, research assistant, Institute for Automotive Engineering (IKA), GERMANY
This investigation focuses on different road definitions, which were used to identify the influence of tire model behaviour on dynamic simulations. Therefore two different tire simulation models are compared to evaluate the adaptation of test rig tire characteristics to real road surfaces in simulation environments. Road curvature as well as road roughness and friction play a key role in this investigation. Texture measurements of road profile samples help define new simulation roads with higher accuracy.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

09:00 - 12:15 - S3 - The measurement of tire compound performance and the development of prediction theories
Rom (Green)

Moderator
Prof Manfred Klueppel, head of department, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie, GERMANY

09:00 - Modelling the stress-strain response of filler reinforced elastomers
Prof Manfred Klueppel, head of department, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie, GERMANY
It will be demonstrated that several aspects of linear and non-linear viscoelasticity of filled rubbers can be traced back to the specific rate and temperature-dependent properties of filler-filler bonds consisting of glassy-like polymer bridges. They are quite stiff and transmit the stress under deformation of the filler network. The pronounced non-linear behaviour of filled elastomers is shown to be related to the rupture of glassy-like polymer bridges, which deform under strain and break if a critical strain is exceeded. The rupture mechanism is described analytically in the frame of a microstructure-based model of rubber reinforcement, denoted dynamic flocculation.

09:25 - Productive mechanical testing solutions for more accurate tire performance prediction
Hugues Baurier, international sales manager, Metravib, FRANCE
The tire industry demands reliable mechanical testing methods that allow characterisation of rubber for predicting the key performance of tires. DMA is a major testing technique to obtain key data leading to prediction of rolling resistance and wet grip, and is also used to characterise frequency dependence, Payne and Mullins effects and heat buildup. Main tests are performed specimen by specimen, most at controlled temperature over quite a large temperature domain, which represents a huge consumption of operator and testing time. This presentation will introduce a brand-new concept that meets the expectations of the tire industry in terms of productivity and data accuracy.

09:50 - Determination of filler morphology through optical imaging and artificial intelligence
Paul Roossin, science director, Nanotronics, USA
A complex SBR tire tread compound that uses a combination of fillers has generally been designed, and filler networks and morphologies classified in microscopy research labs or through integral physical testing. Advanced computational methods for achieving superior detection of sub-micron features, distinguishing silica, carbon black, CNT and other fillers, are explored.

10:15 - Characterisation of processing oils in tires using IR technique
Marzieh Rouhi, manager of laboratory, Barez Industrial Group, IRAN
Extender oils are used predominantly in the tire industry. Therefore, understanding the type and amount of the oils in tires made by prominent tire factories can help us produce great products, just like it does in reverse engineering. In the first step of this study, we used an FT-IR method for conventional oils used in the tire industry and made standard spectra, then extracted the tread of a tire using Soxhlet apparatus by acetone. After that, the yielded extract was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Characteristic peaks for aromatic oil are at 746 and 1,590cm-1.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Sibur tire rubbers
Sergei Bagriashov, head of R&D department, Sibur, RUSSIA
The presentation will review the Sibur rubbers portfolio for the tire industry from a tire key properties prediction point of view. Results of new rubbers development will also be discussed.

11:25 - Novel carbon blacks for upgrades in abrasion and rolling resistance
Dr Hauke Westenberg, manager - compounding rubber, Orion Engineered Carbons GmbH, GERMANY
Durability and low fuel consumption are key development targets when designing new rubber compounds for the tire market. Orion Engineered Carbons is offering a powerful toolbox to achieve these goals. Due to its very low specific surface area and balanced structure, carbon black significantly contributes to a reduction of hysteresis in carcass compounds and in the base compound. Furthermore, hard blacks with a specific narrow aggregate size distribution help to increase the lifetime of tires because the population of active particles is enhanced. However, rolling resistance indicators remain on the same level.

11:50 - Investigations of fracture mechanics for reinforced elastomers considering inelastic material behaviour
Mohammed El Yaagoubi, research associate, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie eV, GERMANY
The service life of tires and other elastomer articles designed for dynamic loading often depends on the crack propagation as an intrinsic material property. Such compounds generally show complex mechanical behaviour including energy dissipation, residual strain, residual stress and material softening. The fracture mechanical description for such materials is complex and cannot be reproduced by hyperelastic material models. Here, the inelastic phenomenological material model MORPH is used, together with the J-integral, tearing energy and energy release rate as fracture criteria. The results of these investigations are correlated to the stress softening near the crack tip of a cracked sample.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

*This program may be subject to change


Day 1

Tuesday 14 February

09:00 - 17:20 - S1 - Where business and technology issues facing tire and vehicle manufacturers converge
Brussels & Rom (Blue)

(This session is shared by both the Scientific and Technical Conference, and the Tire Business Strategy Conference.)

09:00 - Welcome
Tony Robinson, chairman & CEO, founder of Tire Technology Expo, UK

Moderator
Rudi Hein, executive advisor standards and regulations, Bridgestone Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), BELGIUM

The Robert William Thomson Lecture

09:10 - Natural rubber – from carriages to cars and beyond
Dr Stuart Cook, director of research, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK
Natural rubber has played a pivotal role in tire development from the very beginning when Robert Thomson first described its use in his pneumatic tire invention of 1846. Indeed, a number of issues relevant to the tire industry today, including rolling resistance, noise and ‘runflat’ technology, were also addressed in his patent. This lecture seeks to identify the major landmarks in tire development and the role that natural rubber has played in such developments and is likely to play in the future development of the tire.

Keynotes

09:40 - Estimation and guarantee the entire tire life?
Dr Bernd Löwenhaupt, managing director, Sumitomo Rubber Europe GmbH, GERMANY
Tire performance is evaluated under typical conditions in the brand-new state by journals or catalogue. But in the actual market, a tire is used under many conditions with wear and ageing in all seasons. Therefore, tire suppliers should develop tires that are better fitted to the actual market during the entire tire lifetime. This requires technology to estimate the tire performance, taking into consideration all these effects at the development stage, which leads to better tire environmental situations. This paper will introduce this basic concept.

10:10 - Natural rubber alternatives from a tire manufacturer’s viewpoint
Chuck Yurkovich, senior vice president, Global Research and Development, Cooper Tire & Rubber, USA
Alternatives to Hevea natural rubber have received significant media exposure over the past few years. This presentation will review the exploration of such alternatives from a tire manufacturer’s perspective, and discuss how these developments will help address challenges the tire industry faces now and in the future.

10:40 - Tire innovation and new powertrain technologies
Pierre Fraisse, passenger car & light truck tire pre-development director, Michelin, FRANCE
Drastic shifts in mobility expectations are now under way, leading to new challenges for the automotive industry. There is growing pressure on environment footprint reduction, massive urbanisation, and new practices of mobility where users tend to move towards mobility services rather than owning their vehicles. Facing these new trends, car makers adapt their offers, developing new eco-friendly powertrain systems, global mobility services and automated vehicles. In this new paradigm, tires will play stronger role in energy efficiency and autonomy, and will also evolve to meet these new usages. This opens new fields of innovation in tire technologies and associated services.

11:10 - 11:30 - Break

11:30 - Outlook for the global tire market - new markets and future trends in vehicle and tire sales
Paul Settles, senior research economist, LMC International, UK
The presentation will cover: trends in vehicle sales and production; the growth of the global vehicle parc (and the importance of the emerging markets); the determinants of replacement tire sales and trends in replacement tire sales; growth of tire trade (and tariffs) and its impact on manufacturing locations.

12:00 - Tire Industry 2030: from a synthetic elastomer supplier's perspective
Dr Thomas Gross, head of global TS&D and R&D business unit tire & specialty rubbers, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
This keynote aims at translating automotive and tire industry trends into tomorrow’s performance elastomers. While discussing aspects such as material and technology developments, government regulations, market dynamics and sustainability, the impact on the development activities of the entire value chain and, most particularly, raw material suppliers like Arlanxeo, will be analysed. Improving the performance of our rubbers and thus of our customers’ products is our main driver. Arlanxeo is a world-leading synthetic elastomer company with a global presence of 20 production sites and sales of around €2.8bn. It was established as a joint venture of Lanxess and Saudi Aramco.

12:30 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Paul Ita, analyst, North Consulting, USA

14:00 - The future of the tire industry
David Shaw, CEO, Tire Industry Research, UK
This presentation looks at the next 10-20 years in the tire industry. It examines the main challenges facing the industry from increased global competition to autonomous vehicles and ultra-low rolling resistance targets then suggests some ways the whole value chain needs to change in order to meet these challenges.

14:30 - A watershed moment for the automotive industry. How will the automotive industry adapt to change and what influence will this have on business models in the tire industry?
Dr Elmar Kades, managing director, AlixPartners GmbH, GERMANY
The automotive industry is facing the biggest challenge of the past 100 years: how will it keep up with the fast pace of change? An AlixPartners global study predicts that in the next 15 years, electric and hybrid cars could capture over half of the market; connected and autonomous driving will open up new earnings potential; digitisation will enable double-digit cost reductions. The presentation will explore how these factors will influence models in the tire industry.

15:00 - Car of the future: strategic challenges and business opportunities for tire makers
Edoardo Spina, equity research analyst, Exane BNP Paribas, UK
Electric vehicles, car sharing and autonomous driving are expected to bring an unprecedented wave of disruption to the automotive industry over the next decade. Tire makers may have a unique opportunity to enhance their value added to car makers, drivers and passengers, and consolidate their position in the supply chain. However, incumbent tire champions need to keep an eye on new competition from the Far East and make the right strategic decisions.

15:30 - 15:50 - Break

15:50 - Low NR prices and ample availability – for how long?
Dr Hidde Smit, consultant, Rubber Forecasts, NETHERLANDS
The presentation will discuss: the boom in planting of natural rubber (NR) and the resulting surplus in production potential – when the peak will be and when it will finish; price sensitivity of NR producers – the extent to which farmers reduce tapping intensity; driving forces for the developments in prices of NR, butadiene and synthetic rubber – who is following whom; total rubber consumption and the China factor – lower growth rates, steady increases; lack of price sensitivity of consumers and the outlook for NR consumption; interaction on the NR market and the outlook for production and prices.

16:20 - Investments in research - challenges and future for tire materials
Prof Ulrich Giese, managing director, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V (DIK), GERMANY
Concerning future and actual regulations and requirements on tires from market and from politics, the main topics are high lifetime, saving energy, safety, and reduction of CO2 emission during production and in use (CO2 footprint). Economic mixing and vulcanisation techniques, low rolling resistance, extremely reduced wear in combination with highly effective filler systems reducing weight, and high reinforcement properties and sensor technology, require high investments in fundamental and applied research. Highly sophisticated testing and validated simulation methods will contribute to successful development of intelligent tires and to the reduction of costs.

16:50 - Business impact of tire fillers - forecasts from 2020 -2030
Paul Ita, analyst, North Consulting, USA
The presentation will offer long-term projections about the outlook for tire fillers (carbon black and silica). What will be the long-term effect of new environmental legislation, substitution threat, tire design and tire industry product mix shifts? Forecast from 2020 to 2030.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 1

Tuesday 14 February

10:30 - 17:20 - S2 - Tire manufacturing advances (Part 1)
Paris (Purple)

Moderator
Adwin de Vocht, global account manager, VMI Holland BV, NETHERLANDS

10:30 - Tire manufacturing of tomorrow
Jacob Peled, executive chairman, Pelmar Engineering, ISRAEL
Extrapolating from the rate of change and development within the tire and rubber industry in the last 100 years, tire manufacturing in the future will not be much different. Having said that, transformations are already happening as a result of market changes in almost all parts of the world. There are also developments that relate to subjects such as electric cars, logistic burdens, emergence of new markets, mergers and acquisitions, increased value and scarcity of real estate, and the courage of a few to be eccentric.

10:50 - The use of scale-up-sized internal intensive mixers
Richard Jorkasky, technical manager, Kobelco Stewart Bolling Inc, USA
Tire companies tend to have two types of mixers: the small, lab-sized giving 1-3kg and large production mixers yielding 200-600kg. When mixing new compounds, going from the lab-sized mixer to a production mixer can yield 200-600kg of scrap or re-work because of scale-up variabilities. A way to minimise problems is through the use of intermediate sized 'scale-up' mixers. This presentation will show how by first mixing in a scale-up mixer, one can eliminate poor production mixes and scale-up problems, reduce optimisation time and minimise waste/re-work.

11:10 - Screw surface coating influence on the rubber extrusion process
Mário Kaprálik, R&D manager, Konštrukta-Industry AS, SLOVAKIA
New extrusion screw surface coating types offer better wear resistance. But how does it influence the extrusion process? A comparison of PVD CrN and nitrided surface is presented.

11:30 - A rheologically optimised extrusion line for tire components
Dr Gerard Nijman, head of extrusion process engineering, HF-Group, GERMANY
The challenge of a capable high-quality tread and sidewall extrusion line is to form profiles out of up to six compounds without any shrinkage. Moreover, compound recipes change more quickly nowadays than ever before. To achieve a high-quality extrudate, the thermo-rheological behaviour of all compounds needs to be well known and obeyed. A rheologically optimised extrusion line for treads and sidewalls will be presented. The focus will be on screw design, flow channel, pre-former and die design as well as downstream layout.

11:50 - Multilayer powertrain for intermeshing mixer
Johannes Jennissen, managing director, Rado Engineering GmbH, GERMANY
By analysing the fingerprints of existing mixing processes you will find that standard powertrains are often working in disadvantageous working points. Multilayer concepts could be created for your product portfolio and will help you reduce power consumption and give you possibilities for further process optimisation.

12:10 - Implementing smart mixing technology for the tire industry
Dr Mohamed Hassan, R&T executive director, Mesnac Americas Co Ltd, USA
This is an introduction to the smart mixing technology developed by Mesnac, with example applications from the tire industry. The aim is to provide smart solutions in rubber mixing that can achieve the best quality of tire components and the best utilisation of the mixing equipment. This should lead to a reduction in the mixing room operating cost and an improvement in tire performance.

12:30 - HYDROPLUS innovative calendering concept 4.0 with 3D real engineering plant model
Mario Sacchi, technical and commercial manager, Comerio Ercole SpA, ITALY
Simone Aicardi, plant engineering manager, Comerio rcole SpA, ITALY
HYDROPLUS innovative calendering concept 4.0 is an integrated solution for high-quality performance, productivity and safety. Fully integrated with 3D innovative engineering concept based on a real virtual plant model. It is now possible to experience an incredible new engineering experience based on a real model of the product under construction in order to substantially reduce installation times and costs and achieve the best efficiency of all processes.

12:50 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Joe Padovan, University of Akron, USA

14:00 - AM in the tire industry – hype or viable production method?
Augustin Niavas, business development manager tooling, EOS GmbH, GERMANY
AM is slowly but surely becoming an interesting and complementary alternative to established technologies for tire mould manufacturing, thanks to the progress made in the last 10 years in terms of material, quality of the process, reliability of the systems and productivity increase. The combination of these factors associated with the increasing level of complexity in the moulds and the fast turnover required seems to offer a perfect match for the AM USPs. But is this really the case? Which application are more suitable today? Is the integration of this technology possible in the current supply chain?

14:20 - Laser texturing: improve your brand's visibility
Adrien Rodrigues, laser product manager, GF Machining Solutions, SWITZERLAND
Distinct branding is crucial in the tire industry and is ensured by the AgieCharmilles LASER P 1200 U Tire, dedicated to tire moulds. Laser texturing allows multiple reproduction of unique textures, increases contrasts, ensures better visibility of the brand and helps increase the product’s value perception. Features include: fully digitised process; art to part, any design possible; optimal cost control; 100% repeatable process.

14:40 - Metal 3D printing technology for tire mould series production
Ralf Frohwerk, global head of business development, SLM Solutions, GERMANY
SLM Solutions' new metal 3D printer helps create components in a quicker, more cost-effective and precise way than traditional machining. The company continuously improves the productivity of its process to improve the commercial breakeven point vs. conventional production. The tire industry uses the metal 3D printing process to create innovative new tire tread designs for prototyping and series mass production as well as for the tire retreading process.

15:00 - Groundbreaking water-based permanent mould release for efficient tire production
Dr Susanne Deuerlein, project manager, Münch Chemie International GmbH, GERMANY
The main drivers in the tire industry are ever higher quality standards and continuously increasing productivity. Tire curing is the most critical step within the production process, as the green tire already holds over 90% of the value created during compounding and assembly. Due to the above-mentioned customer demands, the team at Münch Chemie International has developed an innovative permanent mould coating that allows several thousand demouldings, thereby minimising the manufacturers’ effort and costs. The use of this water-based coating greatly increases productivity due to faster work cycles and longer mould service lives while ensuring best quality of the tires.

15:20 - 15:40 - Break

15:40 - The science of anti-tack
Edward Juline, VP sales and marketing, Sasco Chemical Group LLC, USA
The use of anti-tack has evolved greatly in the last 15 years, with very precise formulations and the use of advanced mixing and monitoring equipment to ensure consistent application to prevent sticking during transport/storage and eliminate downstream process issues. We have discovered during the last 25 years of producing anti-tack that the selection of an anti-tack is not the simple purchase of an additional process aid, but rather the engineering selection of an ingredient that can have just as much of an effect on the final compound as any other active ingredient in the compound.

16:00 - Control the mould cleaning process by using dry ice microparticles
Ahmet Erdogan, global key account manager tire, Cold Jet Europe BVBA, BELGIUM
Build-up of cured material and mould release agents causes sticking moulds, blemishes and unwanted flash on final parts, making them unusable and requiring line shutdown for cleaning. Dry-ice microparticle blast cleaning offers an in-place, online, quick and effective way to clean without damaging expensive moulds.

16:20 - Multi-physics multi-scale tire development process
Daniel Kreise, sales director, industrial equipment, Dassault Systèmes, FRANCE
As requirements, targets and constraints (due to customer needs, quality, regulation, etc.) become more and more stringent, tire manufacturers and suppliers experience the multiplication of their qualification cycles with an increasing risk of failure. Seamless Qualification, a Dassault Systèmes Industry Solution Experience, allows users to minimise validation costs and warranty issues, providing a flexible testing and simulation governance process. This presentation will describe Dassault Systèmes' understanding of the tire development process, focusing on multi-physics and multi-scale simulations to meet your business goals.

16:40 - 'On-machine' approach: benefits for the tire manufacturing industry
Jens Brusis, strategic account manager, Rockwell Automation, GERMANY
On-machine applications support new control design philosophy that moves industrial controls and hardware closer to the application on the machine. New machine controls with enhanced environmental characteristics, plug-and-play electronics and modular wiring connections offer real cost savings when designing, building and installing, in addition to simplified testing, reliability and faster maintenance/repair. Ease of design, fewer prints to draw, less layout and less customisation all lead to decreased time and money to develop solutions. Reusable solutions allow increased standardisation. Simpler and faster reconfigurability has a strong impact on the build and commissioning phases. The result is considerably easier troubleshooting and shorter mean-time-to-repair.

17:00 - Innovative roll design for high silica content
Martin Grosskreutz, product manager, Karl Buch, GERMANY
For more than 160 years Karl Buch has stood for highest quality rolls and also for innovative roll materials and designs. For quiet, fuel-efficient tires with a good grip, more and more silica is being used in today’s tire production. Even the high-chromium rolls from Karl Buch, which are normally much better in wear resistance than rolls from other cast materials, provide fewer advantages in combination with high silica content. A new compound roll with a proprietary shell material provides excellent wear resistance in combination with optimised temperature distribution on the surface in mixing mills.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 1

Tuesday 14 February

14:00 - 16:50 - S3 - Tires of the future - pneumatic or non-pneumatic, new concepts in design and performance, and tire for electric vehicles
London/Madrid (Red)

Moderator
Rudi Hein, executive advisor standards and regulations, Bridgestone Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), BELGIUM

14:00 - Grip values (µ) distribution on wet public roads
Frederic Biesse, tire performance analysis expert, Michelin, FRANCE
The grip level on worldwide public roads is generally measured and monitored by several devices (British pendulum, grip tester, etc.), introduced initially by road makers. On the other side, tire makers often use other measurements: vehicle braking or analytical trailer, with reference tires. The aim of our study was to have an estimation of the grip level distribution on public roads by analytical trailer measurements (used for threshold and grading regulations in the tire industry). These trailer results were then compared with more traditional road-monitoring devices, to build a global overview of this distribution.

14:25 - A tire to reduce vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift
Dr Yuji Kodama, general manager, The Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd, JAPAN
A tire that reduces the aerodynamic drag and lift of a vehicle is proposed in this presentation. The drag and lift coefficients of the vehicle were calculated by numerical simulation. Aerodynamic drag was reduced 2-3% and lift coefficients were drastically decreased. Experimental tests on an actual vehicle were also carried out to check the simulation results. The drag coefficient was decreased and vehicle stability, which is related by lift force of the vehicle, was improved by 'fins' placed on the sidewall of the tire.

14:50 - Automated and driverless vehicles – an overview
Dr Mohammad Behroozi, research fellow, University of Birmingham, UK
Vehicle automation is a very active area of research and has the potential to change how we travel in the future. This presentation introduces automation and its potential impacts.

15:15 - 15:35 - break

15:35 - Mobile applications to enhance safety on vehicles and tires
Om Kutre, scientist, Apollo Tyres Ltd, INDIA
In the current technological world, development is in all areas of engineering but mainly vehicles, computers, materials science, electronic systems, manufacturing, telecommunication and road/terrains, plus vehicle development in forecasting for self-driving vehicles, drive-assist systems, HUD (head-up displays), vehicle-to-vehicle communication, etc. Tire designs need to deliver more challenging performance for vehicles and customer requirements, revolutionising tire technologies to be more intelligent and customer informative. Mobile applications enhance customer information and knowledge on tire performances (safety, pressure, temperature, mileage, etc.) for tire-road applications any time. Therefore, future tire design is more innovative and challenging.

16:00 - Trends and techniques for light-weighting in passenger tires
Bruce Lambillotte, vice president - technical consulting, Smithers Rapra, USA
The issue of light-weighting in tires has been of historical interest for materials cost control. However, automotive OEM demands for improved rolling resistance and weight control, plus current replacement market labelling requirements, have further heightened focus on the issue. This study will employ a tire analysis database to study light-weighting in passenger tires with the objectives of identifying: whole tire vs. individual component perspectives, target tire components for weight reduction, component volume vs. density trade-offs, weight reductions: rubber components vs. reinforcements.

16:25 - Solving the problem of the basic tire design flaw
Dieter Disselbeck, head of new technologies (retired), Hoechst AG, GERMANY
The public definition of a 'serious tire problem' by NTSB calls for its solution. Tire failures have led to a high number of accidents and impose enormous human, social and economic cost on society. The basic problem of tire design is weak and unreliable material bonding. For physical reasons, the actual design cannot meet the increasing requirements. Solving the problem is a strong mechanical bonding system. A network structure encases the tire body and ensures stability. The new concept in design has been proved to provide better products and has great potential to save life, costs and resources.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 1

Tuesday 14 February

10:30 - 17:15 - S4 - Developments in polymers, fillers and additives for better tire performance (Part 1)
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderator
Gary Crutchley, lead consultant, Smithers Rapra Ltd, UK

10:30 - Innovative molecular simulation for designing high-wear-resistant rubber materials
Dr Masato Naito, manager, Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd, JAPAN
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd has developed a new materials development technology called Advanced 4D Nano Design. It will be used for the development of high-performance rubber materials. This technology has made it possible to analyse rubber chemicals at a molecular level using highly advanced molecular simulations and analyses. In this presentation we will introduce our recent development of high-wear-resistant rubber using this technology, which focuses on the nano structure of the polymer/silica interface.

10:55 - Filler structure dynamics of surface-functionalised carbon black-sSBR compounds
Dr Lewis Tunnicliffe, product development scientist, Birla Carbon, USA
Surface-functionalised carbon blacks used in combination with functionalised sSBR have shown significant improvements in tread compound viscoelastic properties and predicted tire performance. The nature of the filler-polymer interaction and filler network dynamics in such compounds are considered. Studies on thixotropic behaviour in the uncured state show that surface modification of carbon black dramatically suppresses the thermal flocculation of filler particles, resulting in reduced filler networking. This results in favourable modifications to bulk viscoelasticity and is strongly correlated with increasing bound rubber content upon surface modification. Polymer dynamics at the filler-elastomer interface are probed using broadband dielectric spectroscopy.

11:20 - Influence of ZnO and functionalised SBR on tire tread properties
Prof Anke Blume, head of the Elastomer Technology and Engineering chair, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
The effect of silica-filled compounds of two different functionalised SSBRs on the dynamic and mechanical properties of a silica-reinforced tire tread compound is discussed and compared with a reference compound that contains unmodified SSBR. To investigate the effect of ZnO on the properties of the silica-reinforced tread compound, a series of compounds have been prepared in which ZnO was added at a later stage. The results show the significant potential of one of these modified SBRs in particular, to reduce the rolling resistance of tire treads made thereof, with no major change in wet grip.

11:45 - Combining resins, functionalised SSBR and bio-plasticiser for improved tread compounds
Dr Fabio Bacchelli, technical manager, tire, Versalis, ITALY
Since fuel economies and the need to preserve the environment have become major drivers for the development of tire tread compounds, it has been observed that the use of traction resins in compositions that also contain triglyceride vegetable oils and silica as reinforcing filler provide improvement in dynamic and wear properties. In this frame, tread compounds based on combinations of hydrocarbon or terpene resins, selected bio-sourced plasticisers and functionalised SSBR are discussed in terms of mechanical and traction properties, also paying attention to vulcanisation kinetics, chemical issues and resistance to heat ageing.

12:10 - Rubber needs protection
Melanie Wiedemeier-Jarad, technical service manager, Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
The presentation focuses on para-phenylene-diamine as an anti-degradant in natural rubber (NR).

12:35 - In-chain and chain-end functionalised S-SBR for silica-filled tire tread compounds
Dr Norbert Steinhauser, senior technical manager, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Functionalisation of solution SBR (S-SBR) with suited polar groups is a powerful tool for improving the rolling resistance properties of tire tread compounds. S-SBRs with different locations of functional groups were prepared: (I) one functional group per polymer chain with the functional group located at the chain end; (II) several functional groups per polymer chain with the functional groups distributed along the chain. The properties of silica-filled tire tread compounds containing these S-SBRs were examined.

13:00 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Asahi Kasei's S-SBR development strategy and update for eco tires
Hiromi Nakafutami, general manager synthetic rubber development department, Asahi Kasei Corporation, JAPAN
Asahi Kasei's S-SBR for eco tires is used for many kinds of tread of performance tires. The company provides functionalised S-SBR, which can bring significant benefit for the balance between fuel efficiency, grip performance and improved high wear resistance by introducing unique functionalisation and high molecular weight technologies. The presentation will introduce Asahi’s development strategy, the latest development in S-SBR and, especially, the mechanism of improvements.

14:25 - Graphenes: a review of their functions and applications
Dr Fred Rumpf, technology director, Cabot Corporation, USA
Graphene-based materials are multifunctional carbons with a unique thin platelet morphology that can radically improve elastomer compound performance and functionality. Cabot is developing the capability to produce, handle, characterise and compound graphenes for tires and industrial applications. Graphenes can be produced by a variety of processes, and their properties such as shape, aspect ratio and surface chemistry vary accordingly. Our initial compound testing focused on blends of graphenes and carbon black in elastomers for demanding, high-value applications. Low loadings of graphenes are shown to deliver high electrical conductivity and stronger rubber. This presentation will review these functions and applications.

14:50 - New functionalised SSBR with improved rolling resistance/grip balance
Dr Sven Thiele, R&D leader process and product development anionic, Trinseo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Polymer solutions for energy-efficient summer and winter tires were developed at Trinseo and are now available as experimental grades. Typically, high-performance functionalised SSBR grades are difficult to process. Therefore, an alternative highly functionalised clear (oil-free) SSBR grade was developed, which indicates good extrusion characteristics and relatively low polymer-silica formulation viscosity. As the new Trinseo experimental grades also indicate good wear characteristics, consumers should enjoy long-term benefits from corresponding tire families.

15:15 - NR-silica masterbatches: the easy processing way to high-quality silica compounds
Dr Joachim Bertrand, director, Behn Meyer Europe GmbH, GERMANY
The presentation will dicuss: NR + Silica + Silane: advantages and challenges of this compound technology; basics of silica compounding; NR-Si-MB: the solution to the silica processing problems; lab programme with various contents of silica in NR, mixing cycle variations and latest results; conclusions and visions for future tire projects involving the NR-Si masterbatches.

15:40 - 16:00 - Break

16:00 - Rhenocure DR – a new secondary accelerator for rubber
Dr Hermann-Josef Weidenhaupt, technical service manager, Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Diphenyl guanidine is the most used secondary accelerator in rubber compounds, mainly in silica-filled passenger car tread compounds. A problem with DPG is that it releases carcinogenic aniline during the vulcanisation process. In a full silica tread compound, more than 99% of the aniline emission is related to DPG. For carbon black-filled compounds, the newly developed secondary accelerator Vulkacit DR, a polyethylene imine, can be used as an alternative to DPG. A sulphur and aromatic-free chemical, this product has no influence on the cross-linking density and cannot generate carcinogenic vulcanisation fumes.

16:25 - Investigation of the silane-polymer reaction in a model system
Masaki Sato, PhD student, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
Mercapto-silanes have received increased attention during recent years as a possible solution for finding a good balance between low rolling resistance and high wet grip in passenger car tire tread compounds. The use of mercapto-silanes enables a better silica dispersion state during the mixing compared with the conventional sulphide-silanes. But it also causes a higher Mooney viscosity and a shorter scorch time, which results in processing difficulties. Due to the fact that the silica-silane reaction has been deeply investigated but cannot explain these differences, the silane-polymer reaction should be evaluated in depth in the present study.

16:50 - Solvay new silica innovation combining high performance and fuel efficiency in tire
Dr Soline de Cayeux, business development manager, Solvay, FRANCE
Highly dispersible silica (HDS) makes a key contribution to the production of fuel-efficient tires, complying with global regulations on tires and vehicle fleets, and minimising the environmental impact of road transportation. To implement HDS technology in high- and ultra-high-performance passenger car tires, as well as truck tire tread, Solvay innovates to address the demanding performance targets. The company's newly industrialised HDS offers wear and rolling resistance improvement compared with existing solutions. These benefits are demonstrated in the passenger car and truck tire segments.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 2

Wednesday 15 February

09:00 - 13:00 - S1 - Tire manufacturing Advances (Part 2)
London/Madrid (Red)

Moderator
Gerry Pol, sales director Europe, VMI Tire, NETHERLANDS

09:00 - Simplified integration of steel cord inspection system in breaker lines
Joachim Manz, managing director, Roland Electronic GmbH, GERMANY
In the past, there was a need for a special swivel mechanism in order to use the SIS system in steel cord cutting lines for breaker belts. With the brand-new angle control unit (ACU) the task of integration has now been drastically reduced. The new ACU provides a sensor bracket and angular adjusting function in a very compact format. Another fundamental advantage is that the ACUs are controlled directly from the SIS-G3 over the integrated local area network. Therefore a separate PLC device will no longer be necessary for angle adjustment.

09:20 - Track and trace in the tire manufacturing process
Andreas Hoell, technical industry manager, Sick AG, GERMANY
The challenge in tire production is to create a flow from a mixture of materials that is as efficient as possible and at the same time ensures traceability. Established identification solutions like handheld scanners, barcode scanners, image-based code readers and RFID read/write devices can be used for this purpose. The vision is 100% traceability, by minimised non-productive time for operators. At the same time, material tracking ensures optimised material and stock management and reduces production costs. In this session, we will discuss solutions for tire track and trace and system integrations in different PLC and IT systems.

09:40 - VMI Pixxel – an integrated vision platform for monitoring and guiding
Kees Janszen, R&D manager vision and interfacing, VMI Group, NETHERLANDS
The new VMI Pixxel vision system delivers improved performance for guidance and quality monitoring in VMI machinery for tire and rubber. At the heart of VMI’s innovations around vision and monitoring systems is a new smart camera offering higher levels of performance, better machine integration and greater robustness. VMI’s innovative technology will bring the industry a major step closer to the Industry 4.0 concept: a system that is both integrated and potentially enabled for online connectivity. VMI expects VMI Pixxel to help tire makers gain a competitive advantage by using output data to deliver auditable product quality information.

10:00 - New features for tire identification in production, distribution and logistics
Bernhard Lenk, head of T&L and tires, Datalogic Automation, GERMANY
Datalogic provides barcode readers based on vision technology called Matrix 410 ATS and STS400 to identify tires in each step of the process from first stage through to curing, sorting and test machines in production. They can also be used for warehouse management and e-commerce solutions and tire distribution. The STS400 provides high-performance reading with outstanding read rates to enable very high throughput of thousands of tires per day and full transparency of tracking and tracing each individual tire. New features include no code - no label, top and bottom reading, reading of DPM 2D-codes black on black, and reading under touching tires.

10:20 - Microwaves as another logical step in the tire manufacturing process
Daniel Kettner, sales director, ROmiLL, CZECH REPUBLIC
The possible use of microwaves in the rubber industry has been known for some time. For example, curing lines for the extruded profiles have microwave heating zones at their beginning, which significantly shortens the time of curing as well as the line itself. On the other hand, in the tire industry microwaves are seen very rarely and if they are present, their existence is bound by strict NDA. This presentation will show the benefits of using microwaves in the tire manufacturing process and why the corresponding companies are interested in keeping the technology a secret (NDAs are respected).

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Measurement capability testing methods for laser line triangulation sensors
Jeremy Garner, engineering manager, Starrett Bytewise, USA
Laser line triangulation sensors have been a vital tool in identifying geometry and visual defects during tire manufacturing for many years. They are widely accepted for geometric measurement in component extrusion, tire building and cured tire inspection. Several manufacturers of laser line triangulation sensors exist in the marketplace today, each with varying metrics to characterise their measurement capabilities. This paper provides methods best used to evaluate sensor measurement capability. It also provides a general overview of laser line triangulation technology along with its potential uses and limitations.

11:20 - Evolution of profile measurement
Dr Hartwig Suhr, physicist - tire measurement specialist, SDS Systemtechnik GmbH, GERMANY
The progress of online and offline profile measurement for semifinished products in the tire industry (tread, sidewall, etc.) will be presented. The focus will be on the current situation and expectations for the future.

11:40 - Next generation: new EPLEXOR 500 N high-force DMA – the future of dynamic mechanical analysis
Dr Horst Deckmann, technical director, Netzsch Gabo Instruments GmbH, GERMANY
A brand-new high-force DMA system with optical deformations sensors for static and dynamic deformations will be presented. This highly sophisticated instrument line is equipped with digital force sensors. Sensitivity and resolution are improved. Dynamic mechanical thermal materials testing instruments with high resolution are increasingly gaining importance in basic research in the field of viscoelastic material properties. This technique is mainly applied in rubber, polymer science and industry (e.g. production and processing). Dynamic materials testing provides precise information about the viscoelastic mechanical properties including elastic moduli |E*| and viscoelastic damping tan d. Nowadays more and more applications (e.g. tires) require detailed knowledge of non-linear dynamic material properties for computer-aided construction. Only the DMA is able to acquire such data. In particular, high-force DMA systems with large dynamic deformation ranges help to analyse mechanical properties in the linear and non-linear deformation range. Netzsch Gabo's new DMA series is designed for these applications.

12:00 - Increasing safety at operating tire building machines – important aspects
Harald Schmidt, project manager, Sick AG, GERMANY
Tire building machines in operation are frequently subject to severe work accidents. Therefore it is advisable to increase the safety at these machines. However, due to the specific operating principle at these machines, an effective safety retrofit system must consider specific demands resulting from the tire building process. Starting from risk assessment, the presentation will highlight these specific demands and introduce a number of solutions that fulfil the requirements of efficient and safe operation of tire building machines.

12:20 - Increased uptime/optimised drive systems with Bosch Rexroth's intelligent solutions
Matthias Kummert, service business developer, Bosch Rexroth AB, SWEDEN
For the tire industry, uptime and productivity are extremely important. Bosch Rexroth offers the concept Hägglunds Inside Intelligence including Hägglunds CM, Hägglunds CMp and Hägglunds InSight Live. Many years of application and technical knowhow have been used to develop the intelligence that Bosch Rexroth offers today. Thanks to the ODiN intelligence, customers receive a health index, warnings, alarms and reports, and Bosch Rexroth can suggest preventive service actions and optimisation measures for the drive system. Learn how you can reduce your TCO, improve uptime and optimise your process.

12:40 - Manufacturing excellence in the rubber industry
Dr Saikat Das Gupta, chief scientist - vice president, HASETRI, INDIA
We are living in a global village now, and information technology (IT) has made life more comfortable for many of us. Every country is unique and has to plan an organised industry that suits most of the people. Customers at every level need quality at a competitive price and delivered as quickly as possible. Manufacturers are increasingly using IT solutions such as Enterprise Resource Planning and Manufacturing Execution Systems to enhance their productivity. This includes functions such as workflow management, quality control, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, activity-based costing and product lifecycle management.

13:00 - 14:00 - Lunch

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 2

Wednesday 15 February

09:00 - 17:15 - S2 - Developments in polymers, fillers and additives for better tire performance (Part 2)
Rom (Green)

Moderator
Dr Anna Kepas-Suwara, materials scientist, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK

09:00 - Halobutyl innerliners: key to maintaining tire performance/fuel efficiency
Jeff Valentage, global tire market development manager, ExxonMobil, USA
As government regulators and OEMs globally continue to strive for improved vehicle fuel economy while also balancing increased safety and customer demands, they are looking for cost-effective solutions to help meet these challenges without sacrificing performance. One solution already available to the industry today is improving tire air retention. Improving air retention helps maintain consistent in-use tire performance, boosts vehicle fuel economy and improves the overall consumer experience. The presentation will briefly cover: global regulatory trends, current testing practice versus real-world customer experience, tire innerliner trends, available technical solutions and in-use test results.

09:25 - Improving winter traction with naphthenic (green) tire oils
Dr Dr Mika Lahtinen, senior advisor, Nynas AB, SWEDEN
The winter tire market is growing at a 4.4% YoY rate. Increasingly more countries have legislative measures to promote winter tire use. Winter traction is largely governed by tread rubber compounding. Requirements differ from summer tires: the compound must remain soft and flexible at subzero temperatures. However, it should exhibit sufficient stiffness in mild winter weather. Tire oil is an excellent tool to improve winter performance. In this paper we show that low-temperature stiffness of tread compounds can be significantly reduced by selecting tire oil appropriately. This leads to improved winter traction without significantly affecting traction in other conditions.

09:50 - Design of novel functionalised SSBRs for high-performance tires
Dr Luis Rodriguez-Guadarrama, tire research leader, Grupo Dynasol, SPAIN
This presentation introduces the Dynasol SSBR (functionalised and non-functionalised) portfolio for high-performance and ultra-high-performance tires. The functionalisation strategy to select functional groups in SSBRs is described, and the performance of functionalised SSBRs in vulcanised compounds filled with silica is presented.

10:15 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Benefits of active zinc oxide in heavy-duty tire formulation
Olivier Roumache, rubber technologist, Silox SA, BELGIUM
Active zinc oxide is well known to the technical rubber goods producers. In the last decade it has enabled them to reduce the amount of zinc oxide in their formulations. In natural rubber formulations such as heavy-duty tires, additional benefits are also visible: better tensile strength, improved tear, better ageing, etc. – all properties that may be beneficial to the tire without formulation change.

11:25 - The effect of rubber microstructure on the dynamic properties of tire tread
Dr Saikat Das Gupta, chief scientist - vice president, HASETRI, INDIA
Since the introduction of tire labelling, there has been a continuous effort to find suitable optimisation of the tire tread recipe with respect to rubber microstructure and filler type to obtain better physical as well as dynamic mechanical properties. Detailed work is being carried out to see the effect of the microstructure of synthetic rubbers on properties like static modulus, dynamic modulus, elongation and loss factors at different temperatures. This study was carried out on carbon-based and silica-based recipes as well as blend of carbon-silica rubber recipes.

11:50 - Silica morphology and functionality: enabling environmentally friendly sidewall performance
Timothy Okel, senior research associate, PPG Industries Inc, USA
Silica technology advances enable the continuing developmental evolution in environmentally friendly tires. This presentation covers pilot-scale follow-up work that systematically evaluated the impact of filler type and amount as well as rotor design on the productivity, processing and performance characteristics of a model sidewall formulation. The results show that an appropriate balance of carbon black, non-treated silica (i.e. Hi-Sil EZ160), treated silica (Agilon 400), along with modified formulations and mixing schemes, can provide further improvement in productivity, fuel efficiency and resistance to degradative forces.

12:15 - End-functionalisation of catalytic and anionic polybutadienes
Dr Thomas Rünzi, technical manager, Arlanxeo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
It is widely known that high-cis polybutadienes exhibiting low glass transition temperatures perform the best among all polybutadienes in terms of energy dissipation. The polymerisation techniques applied are based on multi-component transition metal catalysts so that end-functionalisation reactions are rather complex. Certain polymerisation conditions and end-functionalisation reagents tailored to these requirements need to be applied in this case. Functionalisation of anionic polymers are more straightforward. We will further present functionalised lithium polybutadienes that match the performance of a high-cis NdBR but offers certain additional advantages.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

Moderator
Dr Wolfgang Pille-Wolf, principal scientist, Kraton Corporation, NETHERLANDS

14:00 - The interaction between tread enhancement additives and elastomers
Dr Wolfgang Pille-Wolf, principal scientist, Kraton Corporation, NETHERLANDS
For the last 10 years the utilisation of tread enhancement additives to influence the viscoelastic properties of PCR tire treads has increased. With the possibilities of the solution polymerisation process controlling the molecular architecture, an ever-increasing number of different types of elastomers have been realised by the rubber industry. This paper describes the effect of macro and microstructure of various elastomers on different TEA chemistries derived from simplified model mixtures, providing an insight into future TEA design. Consequently, a newly developed additive will be presented and its performance in typical PCR tread compounds will be discussed.

14:25 - Development of high-cis polybutadiene rubber grades
Dr Malte Wohlfahrt, leader ESBR/BR synthetic rubber R&D, Trinseo Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
Trinseo’s synthetic rubber business is expanding its product portfolio with high-cis polybutadiene rubber (HCBR) grades to answer the increased demand in the automotive industry for materials supporting fuel efficiency improvements in tires. An outlook on sources of hysteresis loss in tire compounds will be provided, as well as examples from neodymium-based initiator systems and functionalisation technology to counteract this.

14:50 - New method to support formulation adjustment for optimised tire performance
Thomas Chaussee, application lab manager, Solvay Silica, FRANCE
As part of a method aimed at evaluating the reactivity of silica surface with silica, a few techniques have been developed to better understand silanisation mechanism on silica in terms of kinetic, grafted ratio and nature. A link has been made with applicative results showing a possible correlation between the test and the optimum level of silane to achieve optimised performance in rubber. The technique and applicative results will be discussed. This new association of results should support faster formulation adjustment. Further development of this technique aimed at better understanding of silane reaction and interface structuration will be shown.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Performance of YL functionalised hydrocarbon resins in green tires
Chi Ta Tsai, R&D section manager, Yuen Liang Industrial Co Ltd, TAIWAN
YL functionalised resins are used in green tires, where they enhance grip performance and keep a good level of rolling resistance. They offer high aromaticity and well compatibility with the major rubber in tires. They play the role of tackifier, plasticiser, dispersing agent and Tg adjustment for tire compounds. These resins are also used in a broad range of rubber goods such as conveyor belts, shoe soles and special rubber articles. We deliver innovative resin products and high flexibility in custom product co-design not only for tires but also for adhesives, coatings and ink application.

16:00 - Advanced rubbers from PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim for the tire industry
Denis Maximov, deputy chief process engineer, polymer materials, PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim, RUSSIA
The presentation discusses the main challenges that synthetic rubbers producers face during production for the tire industry. An analysis of brand assortment and production volume of PJSC Nizhnekamskneftekhim was performed over the last five years. The presentation will also discuss the results of the company's research and development and pilot work in the field of butadiene, styrene-butadiene and halobutyl rubber production. The advantages and special aspects of processing of new grades of synthetic rubbers will also be discussed.

16:25 - AFM visualisation of interfaces in rubber compounds
Dr Anna Kepas-Suwara, materials scientist, Tun Abdul Razak Research Centre, UK
In tire tread formulations, rubbers and fillers are blended to achieve optimum tread properties. The bulk properties of these composite materials are influenced by the properties of both the polymer-polymer and the polymer-filler interfaces. These can have a significant impact on the key characteristics of the compounds. A better understanding of these interactions could lead to enhanced design of tire tread formulations with improved mechanical and physical properties. This study uses AFM visualisation and characterisation of the polymer-filler interface in silica and carbon black-filled single polymers and the polymer-polymer interface in unfilled blends.

16:50 - Zinc oxide order of addition effect on NXT Z* 45 compounds
Dr Daria Sitnikova, application development engineer, Momentive Performance Materials, GERMANY
With the numerous new materials being offered to the tire industry today, controlling the various reactions to optimize compound properties is challenging. One of the most useful ways to meet the challenge is by controlling the order of addition of key ingredients. Zinc oxide can affect compound properties depending on when it is added to the mix. Zinc oxide added in an early mixing stage can significantly reduce silanization, processability, silane/polymer interaction parameter, and critical dynamic properties such as Tan d at 60oC. When using standard sulfur silanes, adding zinc oxide in the first mixing stage is necessary to keep the compound from sticking to the processing mill. However, blocked mercapto silanes eliminate the sticking problem. The paper shows how strategic order of addition of zinc oxide can significantly enhance compound properties using mercapto or blocked-mercapto silanes.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 2

Wednesday 15 February

09:00 - 17:40 - S3 - Regulations and compliance standards, the move to realistic testing and mathematical prediction
Europa 3 & 4 (Yellow)

Moderator
Dr Gerald Potts, CEO/CTO, TMSI LLC, USA

09:00 - Chip-and-cut mechanism in the lab – behaviour of tire tread in the field
Dr Radek Stocek, head of R&D, PRL Polymer Research Lab, CZECH REPUBLIC
The chip-and-cut methodology is based on the experimental determination of the fracture data with respect to real broadly varied tire loading conditions by using new lab testing equipment. The exact mechanisms that are affecting the tire tread while in service – such as dynamic impacts, frictional sliding and abrasion caused by hard asperities – are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the measured data is related to the surface and internal structures of the tested specimen by using computer tomography (CT). In conclusion, we introduce the numerically quantified properties of rubber blends, describing their resistance against CC behaviour.

09:25 - Rolling resistance SAE 2452 versus ISO 28580
Markus Oertiker, project manager, TS TestingService GmbH, GERMANY
Rolling resistance and the resulting fuel economy has been the key topic of the last 10 years in the tire industry. This presentation compares the coast-down method of SAE 2452 with the rolling resistance standard ISO 28580, which is currently the most-used standard for tire tyre approval and labelling requirements worldwide. The presentation will also look into the different drive cycles around the world and the resulting differences in the results.

09:50 - Swiss knife or tool box? How to evaluate tire characteristics
Christian Bachmann, manager - tire technology, FKA Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbH Aachen, GERMANY
Tire characteristics are manifold and strongly dependent on various operating and boundary conditions such as excitation frequency or temperature. Identification of the characteristics of interest, usually involves the application of laboratory test rigs, which simplify certain operating conditions, e.g. replacing the road surface with a sandpaper-coated drum or flat belt. This presentation will introduce diverse state-of-the-art ways to identify certain tire characteristics and assess the different challenges that occur. Various types of laboratory test rigs and on-road measurement options as well as the applied sensor technologies are introduced and discussed using dedicated examples.

10:15 - Rubber-ice friction laboratory testing: effect of multi-scale roughness
Dr Ari Tuononen, academy research fellow, Aalto University, FINLAND
Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g. tires on icy roads. This study uses in-situ white light interferometry to analyse ice surface topography during rubber friction testing. The method helps to understand the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualisation and quantitative measurement of ice roughness at different length scales. A multi-scale rubber friction theory by Bo Persson was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient. These results create new possibilities to improve tire grip on icy roads.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Reproduction of real road driving behaviour on a flat belt
Dr Jürgen Bredenbeck, managing director, A&D Europe GmbH, GERMANY
A&D started to support the automotive and tire testing industry with a moving belt system for wind tunnel application some years ago. A&D has a depth of experience with different kinds of flat-belt tire testing rigs that have in common high driving stability, high responsiveness and high accuracy on force measurement. A&D has investigated the reproducibility of real road driving behaviour on a flat-belt tire testing rig. Some examples of the taken measurements will be introduced.

11:25 - Torque-induced modal response of tires
Steven Huggins, test and simulation engineer, Global Center for Automotive Performance Research, USA
With the development of advanced vehicle control systems and electric vehicles, the importance of understanding the dynamic coupling between the wheel torque and other tire responses is increasing. This work will present the lateral and longitudinal force response of a rolling tire from a random torque input up to 100Hz on a flat-track tire test machine. To evaluate the torque effect, modal response results will be given for the tire in multiple steady-state conditions including vertical load, slip angle, inclination angle, roadway velocity and torque offset for a variety of tires (passenger, performance, light truck and competition).

11:50 - Representative test surfaces for tire force and moment testing
Jonathan Darab, director, Global Center for Automotive Performance Simulation, USA
The purpose of this presentation is to research and analyse important surface texture properties and their relevance in selecting and creating custom road surfaces for indoor tire force and moment testing. The presentation will develop the importance of these characteristics through data comparison of outdoor test surfaces, standard indoor test surface and custom indoor test surfaces. Specifically, the work includes the evaluation of macro and micro textures via the Ergun and Persson models, as well as direct comparisons between spatial power spectral densities of the various indoor and outdoor surfaces.

12:15 - Parameters influencing real road rolling resistance of truck tires
Oliver Sipply, research assistant, Institute for Automotive Engineering (IKA) RWTH Aachen University, GERMANY
Tire rolling resistance measurements are normally performed indoors on drum test machines. In the laboratory all environmental parameters can be kept within a small, standardised range, which ensures highly repeatable and comparable results. But in the real world, the tire runs under varying environmental conditions. The road curvature is almost even but each road structure has a different stiffness and roughness. Also, air and road temperature and rolling velocity vary compared with the laboratory. In this investigation, IKA’s Farep mobile tire test rig is used to determine parameters influencing the rolling resistance of truck tires.

12:40 - Real data tire model fitting, application on Pacejka 5.2
Arnaud Dufournier, CEO, Dufournier Technologies, FRANCE
Anne-Sophie Girard-Guichon, software engineer, Dufournier Technologies, FRANCE
The tire model is a major domain for car makers, tire manufacturers or racing teams. They are mostly fitted on data generated on the bench. Fitting on real data is necessary to be more realistic, but is more difficult and generally inaccurate. The presentation will show how to succeed from experiment design to data fitting through data processing on an example Pacejka 5.2.

13:05 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Prediction of tire dry grip by LAT 100
Marzieh Salehi, PDEng, Twente University, NETHERLANDS
One of the key considerations for any vehicle is safety. Tires are the only contact area between a vehicle and the ground. Traction, or tire grip, is a determining factor for transmitting all forces to the road. Lack of sufficient friction between the tire and pavement increases the risk of car accidents. Since friction is a complex phenomenon, it is difficult to predict tire behaviour on the road. By using the LAT 100 in a laboratory, the coefficient of friction was measured under a wide range of test conditions on various surfaces.

14:25 - Three-dimensional printing in rubber friction studies
Mona Mahboob Kanafi, PhD student, Aalto University, FINLAND
Three-dimensional printing is a powerful tool for creating customised designs from various materials. Yet it still hasn’t found the right application in tire/road interactions. For the first time, we have studied the practicality of using 3D-printed substrates in rubber friction experiments. In this presentation, we will provide answers to the two main questions: 1. Can we use 3D-printed replicas of road pavements as the countersurface, when testing the frictional performance of different rubber compounds? 2. How can 3D-printed randomly rough surfaces help us get an insight into the texture effects on rubber friction?

14:50 - Optical measurement of tire deformation focused on transient handling properties
Pavel Sarkisov, PhD candidate, Technische Universität Dresden, GERMANY
Development of driver assistance systems requires an understanding of tire behaviour under dynamic load in longitudinal and lateral directions up to 100% slip. Stereocamera-based optical measurements of a rolling tire have provided understanding of the tire deformation, such as tread shear, carcass lateral and longitudinal deflection, bending and shear of its cross-sections. It was found that consideration of several important mechanical properties and effects of a rolling tire in a physical model provides a qualitatively valid simulation in the different tire motion modes, all of which cannot be reasonably covered by the existing empirical models.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Winter tire testing – a test manager's nightmare
Jukka Antila, technical director, Test World, FINLAND
Winter tire testing requires winter conditions, which are available only in certain months and locations, but never being fully secure there either. All this causes delays, costs and uncertainty for the development. But there is a solution: indoor testing. Winter tires need results not only on snow and ice, but also wet and dry, which now can be done under the same roof to speed up the development cycle.

16:00 - Bringing accuracy and repeatability to tire testing
Dr James Cuttino, president & CEO, Camber Ridge LLC, USA
Measurement of tire forces and moments are subject to tradeoffs in data quality. Conventional indoor machines are repeatable but cannot reproduce the frictional effects of real pavements. Proving grounds suffer from poor repeatability and precision. Camber Ridge has created a facility combining the fidelity of a proving ground with the environmental controls of a laboratory. An autonomous sled accurately positions a test tire while translating it over an indoor paved oval at operating speeds. This presentation will discuss sources of error in measurement techniques and quantify improvements in both accuracy and repeatability in tire data obtained from this facility.

16:25 - Pavement texture and unevenness influence on tire rolling resistance
Prof Jerzy Ejsmont, professor, Technical University of Gdansk, POLAND
Beata Świeczko-Żurek, Ph.D., Technical University of Gdansk, POLAND
The paper deals with the influence of road surface texture and unevenness on rolling resistance of light and heavy vehicle tires. Results of numerous road and laboratory measurements performed at the Technical University of Gdansk are presented. The interface between tire tread and road surface is described, including a partial enveloping phenomenon that must be accounted for if road texture is correlated with tire rolling resistance. Oslo influence of road surface unevenness on energy losses in tire structure is described. The most important practical and theoretical problems related to road measurements of tire rolling resistance are discussed.

16:50 - Safety, durability and forensic analysis of failed tires
Dr Prasenjit Ghosh, senior engineer (dy. general manager), HASETRI, INDIA
Tire safety is usually part of a complex relationship involving the tire itself, human beings,vehicle or service equipment and other external elements. There are two primary areas of tire safety that pertain to failure: tire servicing and maintenance, and on-vehicle, in-service conditions. Tire durability is the structural integrity of the tire in service. Tire failure is directly related to the tire's durability and applications. Failure analysis of a tire is important for making modern automobiles safer and more durable. Some of the elements of tire safety, basic mechanics and factors pertinent to tire durability will be discussed.

17:15 - Direct estimation of tire contact features using strain-based intelligent tire
Hojong Lee, graduate student, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
In this study, diverse tire contact parameters were estimated by using strain-based intelligent tire. Intelligent tire used for this study has more than three strain sensors attached to its innerliner along the tire lateral direction. Cornering and braking tests were performed on the Flat-Trac test rig while measuring circumferential strains simultaneously. Several regressors were extracted from measured signals and used to estimate corresponding contact parameters: slip angles, slip ratios, contact forces. Regression results agree well with measurements, showing considerable promise for direct estimations of tire contact features based on strain measurements.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 2

Wednesday 15 February

09:00 - 15:40 - S4 - New characteristics of tire cords and steel wires
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderators
Dr Kurt Uihlein, director marketing & development, Cordenka GmbH & Co KG, GERMANY
Stijn Himpe, VP technology rubber reinforcement, Bekaert, BELGIUM

09:00 - Atmospheric plasma coating of tire reinforcing materials
Dr Frederic Siffer, principal engineer - reinforcement technologies, Goodyear, LUXEMBOURG
Tires are complex composite materials made of rubber and reinforcing materials. New methods for bonding tire reinforcing materials to compound are constantly sought to expand existing technology and achieve advancements in tire properties. An atmospheric plasma polymerisation process is being investigated as a new technique for depositing a thin polymerised coating onto tire cords. Plasma polymerisation experiments were conducted on steel filaments using precursors such as methylene chloride, myrcene and limonene with argon as the ionisation gas. The effects of plasma coating variables on coating chemistry and rubber adhesion will be presented, as well as potential industrial applications.

09:25 - Plasma treatment of polymeric single end cord for adhesion promotion
Andre Louis, product development engineer, Apollo Tyres Global R&D BV, NETHERLANDS
A plasma coating was applied to polymeric single end cords to promote adhesion to unvulcanised rubber. An atmospheric plasma jet was used in a pilot-scale treatment line to coat polymeric cord surfaces with an adhesive layer. The focus was on the application of sulphuric precursors on non-dipped polymeric cord. Results and experiences as well as the main development steps of this research project will be discussed. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of the resulting cord/rubber interface in comparison with the industrial standard will be demonstrated.

09:50 - Endless possibilities with hybrid reinforcement cord technology
Sander Nieuwenhuijzen, product manager, Teijin Aramid BV, NETHERLANDS
Today's focus on reducing tire weight increases the use of aramid light weight reinforcement solutions. Full aramid cords can be rather stiff for the dynamic conditions in a tire, and solutions are often found in the use of hybrid cord technology. Variations in cord construction or process parameters allow the design of a cord with the desired behaviour. The possibilities are almost endless. Selecting the right combination gives the cord the properties that it needs at every stage of the tire lifecycle, and takes full advantage of the high performance that the aramid yarn provides.

10:15 - Extra-high-tenacity and high-denier reinforcement on carcass weight reduction
Glenn Lim, technology director, Performance Fibers, HONG KONG
Tire manufacturers have come to rely on carcass weight reduction as one of multiple ways to reducing rolling resistance. This study looks at applying extra-high-tenacity and high-denier PET reinforcement to reduce overall carcass weight. Extra-high tenacity applies the concept of using a finer-denier 1300D to replace a 1500D PET in carcass without sacrificing ply strength and safety. High denier applies the concept of using a coarser-denier 3000D to replace a 1500D PET in carcass through carcass ply reduction. Both studies will also address overall impact on PCR tire performances through indoor tests.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Aqueous dispersion of functionalised liquid polybutadiene for textile treatment
Dr Jean-Marc Monsallier, director - rubber market, Total Cray Valley, FRANCE
Cray Valley has developed aqueous dispersion of functionalised polybutadiene to be used in place of traditional emulsion treatment for textile-to-rubber adhesion. That dispersion leads to good interaction with polar and non-polar material. It also provides good compatibility with vinyl pyridine or styrene butadiene latexes and good affinity with rubber. Recently, investigations have led to increasing pressure on manufacturers to develop new emulsion treatment without resorcinol formaldehyde. The aqueous dispersion of functionalised polybutadiene provides a less complex and more environmentally acceptable formulating alternative to RFL.

11:25 - VP latex – an insight into capabilities and technology
Dr Sören Butz, head of technical service industry team textile, Synthomer Deutschland GmbH, GERMANY
VP latex is a key component for the RFL (resorcinol-formaldehyde latex) dip, serving as a crucial bonding agent between the rubber and the reinforcing fibre, which find their main application in cords for tires, conveyer belts, V belts, hoses and air springs. The presentation will review the global VP latex demand landscape and provide an insight into the VP latex technology. General product compositions as well as relevant technical key functionalities will be discussed with special focus on the interface adhesion.

11:50 - Environmentally friendly resorcinol-formaldehyde-free adhesive systems for fiber-rubber composites
Dr Qasim Shaikh, development manager, Mehler Engineered Products GmbH, GERMANY
Textile fibers are commonly treated by a resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex (RFL) coating to obtain desired adhesion to the rubber matrix. Due to recent regulations there is an immediate need to look for alternative cross-linking systems. Our work deals with the development of RF-free dip coating formulations, consisting of VP, SBR, NBR and CR latex dispersions along with water-dispersible resin and cross-linkers. These water-based, environmentally friendly dip coating formulations are applied in a single dipping process to pre-activated PET and aramid yarns and fabric reinforcements, resulting in enhanced adhesion to NR/SBR, NR, NBR, EPDM and CR rubber compounds.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Addressing energy and environmental aspects in tire cord production
Thomas Soika, sales manager, Benninger Zell GmbH, GERMANY
In the past, when energy costs and environmental considerations didn’t matter that much, machines were designed and built without respect of the same, just to ensure that the products met their required specifications: only production mattered. Fortunately, times have changed and environmental aspects as well as energy costs have become an issue. This has been the driving force for process and machine improvements. Sustainability and 'green footprint' are major concerns when setting up new facilities or upgrading existing ones – a close partnership between process owners and machine manufacturers is required.

14:25 - Twisted multi-ply polymeric monofilaments as tire reinforcement
Anil Ibis, R&D project leader, Kordsa Global, TURKEY
Monolyx, multi-ply polymeric monofilament cord for tire reinforcement provides extraordinary endurance and cut resistance performance, which makes it a distinctive protective tire reinforcement element. Monolyx has at least two single plies of monofilament fibres twisted together. Twisted monofilament cords can contain either polyamide or other various types of monofilament fibres.

14:50 - Ultra-high-strength Bekaert reinforcements for the future
Stijn Himpe, VP technology rubber reinforcement, Bekaert, BELGIUM
Bekaert will introduce the latest-technology ultra-high-strength steel reinforcements for tires, which is being commercialised now. These advanced constructions allow for thinner steel and skim compound plies and belts, which leads to a reduction in tire weight, as well as a reduction in tire rolling resistance and vehicle CO2 emissions.

15:15 - Economical tire cord converting – a comprehensive cost calculation
Oguz Karcier, head of product management, Lindauer DORNIER GmbH, GERMANY
The industry's main focus lies in the efficient production of a quality product. The weaving process is part of the complete process chain in tire cord production. Lindauer Dornier GmbH has set numerous milestones in order to optimise this process and reduce costs for customers. The presentation examines the weaving process and gives an overview of the costs incurred and their influencing factors.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 2

Wednesday 15 February

09:00 - 16:50 - S5 - Greater tire durability and performance using green, replenishable, sustainable and recycled materials
Brussels (Purple)

Moderator
Prof Ulrich Giese, managing director, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie e.V (DIK), GERMANY

09:00 - Development of the guayule tire
Zachary Walters, engineer, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company is the lead entity in a consortium working under a US$6.9m Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) grant to advance science in guayule plant genetics, agronomics, rubber production and utilisation of rubber and other co-products from guayule. A major part of the grant is the development of a guayule rubber-based tire, and significant progress has been achieved since the grant was initiated in 2012. This presentation will provide an update on the guayule rubber-based tire development, including a review of some of the challenges and accomplishments to date.

09:25 - Byproduct differences in guayule prepared by latex and solution processes
Dr Nicolas Sauty, polymer scientist, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Guayule resin contains a wide array of chemicals including terpenes and terpenoids, fatty acids and esters, and polysaccharides. Two processes – a latex process and a solution process – are utilised for the production of guayule rubber. These processes do not yield identical residual guayule resin components. Resin extracts from both processes were analysed by gas chromatography and their influence on rubber compounds was evaluated.

09:50 - Protein modifiers in guayule rubber compounds
Dr Colleen McMahan, research chemist, USDA-ARS, USA
Guayule is under development as a renewed agricultural crop in the USA, southern Europe and Australia. As processed, guayule natural rubber is low in proteins, and thus not equivalent to Hevea NR in some aspects. Commercial proteins might be useful in guayule formulations. Here, a series of proteins (gelatin, soy, casein, zein, albumin, gluten, gliadin) were added to guayule as a latex blend. In general, protein addition reduced bulk viscosity and improved thermo-oxidative stability. Gel and green strength of the polymer-protein blends were also generally improved. Effects on vulcanisation and mechanical properties in compounds were dependent on the antioxidants used.

10:15 - Thermal treatment of guayule resin and use in compounding
Dr Nicolas Sauty, polymer scientist, Cooper Tire & Rubber Company, USA
Crude guayule resin is known to be deleterious to rubber compound performance. However, it can be treated to to yield useful rubber additives under certain conditions. In this study, guayule resin was thermally treated at different temperatures, producing materials of various softening points. These materials were evaluated in rubber formulations as tackifiers.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Developing a model for sustainable passenger tires using guayule rubber
Dr Amy Landis, Thomas F. Hash ’69 Endowed Chair in Sustainable Development & Professor, Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, USA
Guayule, a perennial shrub that can be cultivated in southwestern USA, produces natural rubber that could be an ideal substitute for Hevea natural rubbers and synthetic rubbers currently used in tires. This talk will present a sustainability tool to evaluate the environmental, social and economic implications of a passenger tire containing guayule rubber components. The cradle-to-grave model evaluates all stages of tire production including guayule agriculture, rubber extraction, tire manufacture, tire use and end-of-life. This tool and our results can be used to set benchmark metrics against existing tires.

11:25 - Bio-based liquid rubber for tire formulation
Marcel Gruendken, technical manager, Kuraray Europe GmbH, GERMANY
Kuraray has developed a series of liquid rubber products with molecular weights ranging from a few thousand to 100,000. These polymers, which consist of isoprene, butadiene, styrene and a new, bio-based monomer Farnesene, can be used by rubber manufacturers to achieve improvements in processing and physical properties. The most valuable physical property enhancement liquid Farnesene rubber offers is reduction in tire rolling resistance, as well as a plasticising effect. The application of each liquid rubber product in tire formulations is explained in the presentation.

11:50 - Engineered polysaccharides: sustainable material development for reinforcing filler applications
Dr Christian Lenges, business development, DuPont Industrial BioSciences, USA
Polysaccharides are important biopolymers with a wide range of industrial and consumer applications. Historically, structural polysaccharides such as cellulose have been the backbone of early material science for many applications. Progress in recent years has focused on material design for filler applications. DuPont Industrial Biosciences is developing a new polysaccharide material platform with control of polymer architecture and morphology. This novel polymerisation process offers the unique opportunity of controlling the macro-molecular structure and material properties of primary particles and larger agglomerates. This presentation will describe first examples of polysaccharide-based materials as reinforcing fillers in various rubber composite applications.

12:15 - Advanced liquid hydrocarbon resins for green tires
Dr Jun Liu, manager application technology, Ruetgers Novares GmbH, GERMANY
Hydrocarbon resins have become an important additive for modification of hysteresis in tread formulations. Consequently, grip and rolling resistance can be significantly improved. The chemical composition and molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon resins are known to have an important impact on compatibility between resin and rubber, which fundamentally affects hysteresis and other physical mechanical properties of rubber. In this presentation we will introduce a series of low molecular hydrocarbon resins, discuss the relationship between their chemistry and application performance, and show the synergistic advantage of controlled molecular weight and proper chemical composition.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

14:00 - Regenerated rubber: vision for a green cost-effective future
Dr Brian Harrison, chief scientific officer, Rubreco, CANADA
Hurdon A. Hooper, chief administrative offier, Rubreco, CANADA
Rubreco is a New Brunswick-based company that has developed a rubber regeneration process that makes possible the recovery and reuse of the valuable constituents found in rubber waste from the tire manufacturing process and other industrial processes as well as end-of-life tires. This is the only process in the world to devulcanise and regenerate waste rubber. Tire manufacturers now have an opportunity to use waste from their own manufacturing process, which is a 'known' entity and well defined. Rubreco’s regeneration process makes possible the recovery of this valuable resource at a fraction of the cost of new rubber.

14:25 - Improving sustainability and performance in green tire tread formulations
Glenn Denstaedt, technical director - tire and rubber, Lehigh Technologies, USA
The use of high-performance renewable materials in low-rolling-resistance tire tread compounds is increasing globally, as tire companies strive to create the 'greenest tire' in terms of performance and sustainability. Optimised formulas using renewable micronized rubber powder (MRP) in silica-silane SSBR tread compounds can yield performance benefits specifically in terms of hysteresis. Information will be presented on compound formula optimisation for filler content, with the potential for removing carbon black from a mostly silica-containing tread. Micronised rubber powder can also be used to alter the compound Tg in formulas containing high Tg polymers.

14:50 - Continuous rubber recycling using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder
Dr Alessandro Gallo, R&D specialist, F.lli Maris SpA, ITALY
A new technology based on the twin-screw extruder is able to devulcanise the cured rubber, restoring its plasticity and allowing it to be processed again. It is based on a purely thermomechanical method, making no use of chemical agents. The recycled material can be reused as a raw material: it can be blended with virgin rubber (up to 50%) without significant loss of mechanical properties, or used alone for less demanding applications. This process has been tested and optimised for different kinds of elastomers, including tires.

15:15 - 15:35 - Break

15:35 - Challenges of craddle to craddle loops in modern tire technology
Hans (J W) van Hoek, teacher, PhD student, University of Twente, NETHERLANDS
When devulcanising ground passenger car tire rubber by a thermomechanical, devulcanisation aid supported process in a twin-screw extruder, visible particles remain, resulting in poor properties. Our study shows that these particles can be characterised by a low degree of devulcanisation, but also by a relatively high amount of silica agglomerates. A longer residence time results in a higher degree of devulcanisation with only a minor increase in polymer scission of these particles, whose size can then be considerably reduced during further processing. A minimum size of these particles is determined by the dispersibility of the filler agglomerates.

16:00 - Application of bio-based content for rubber products by ISO standard
Dr Masao Kunioka, project leader, Japan National Mirror Committee (NMC) on ISO/TC 45, JAPAN
Japan National Mirror Committee (NMC) on ISO/TC 45 is developing ISO 19984 parts 1-3 for determination of bio-based content for rubber products, to promote rubber products made of natural rubber and bio-based additives. Bio-based carbon content is determined based on the amount of carbon in the rubber product. Bio-based mass content is determined based on constituent mass amount. Bio-based content is used for the determination of bio-based combustion energy and CO2 emission. Using bio-based rubber products contributes to a decrease in fossil energy consumption and fossil CO2 emission.

16:25 - Natural oils and tires: sustainability and performance
Cristina Bergmann, product manager process oil, Hansen & Rosenthal KG, GERMANY
In the last few years, efforts to reduce the environmental footprint of tires have been intensified by moving from fossil goods to more sustainable products based on biomass. This work describes the development and use of process oils based on renewable sources in tire compounds. The new bio-based products developed by Hansen & Rosenthal can achieve improvements in rolling resistance, wet grip and abrasion loss in comparison with the mineral oil-based product.

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 3

Thursday 16 February

09:00 - 12:15 - S1 - The tire as a sensor for vehicle safety and control, in-service monitoring, non-contact tire identification, and supply of tire data to garage and internet
Brussels (Purple)

Moderator
Alan Bennetts, director, Bay Systems, UK

09:00 - Temperature measurements at the tire shoulder enable lower rolling resistance
Alan Bennetts, director, Bay Systems, UK
Presentation of data acquired from various tires – car and truck – showing the precise locations at which heat is being generated. Heat=Rolling Resistance.

09:25 - Intelligent tire market trends
Gary Crutchley, lead consultant, Smithers Rapra Ltd, UK
The prospective role of the intelligent tire will be the ability to provide tire-road information for vehicle control systems, such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), as well as intelligent transportation networks and autonomous driving systems. Intelligent tire technologies are coming of age in an environment where vehicle OEMs are looking at every available means of meeting stricter emissions targets and fuel economy standards. Smithers Rapra's presentation will provide an overview of key market trends and latest technology developments driving the adoption of intelligent tires to 2025.

09:50 - The Internet of Tires – QR code marking
Dr Armin Kraus, managing director, 4JET Technologies GmbH, GERMANY
Tire engineers are raving about the technical possibilities of intelligent tires. Business experts rate it as the beginning of the era of the Internet of Tires and predict the rise of new business models. However, we have had a lot of marketing noise and very few real-use cases so far. Much ado about nothing? Laser-engraved QR codes on tires certainly have less exciting potential for engineers than RFID-based sensor technology does. However, OEMs seem to be convinced by the technology – it opens an alternative, stepwise approach to the Internet of Tires.

10:15 - RFID tire tags application in tire lifecycle management
Lanfei Dong, chief engineer, Mesnac (Mertc), CHINA
With the development of the Internet of Things, the tire industry is seeing an increasing demand for tire lifecycle management. Currently, the barcode and tire sidewall marking are the main methods for storing tire information. But these methods are not robust, since barcode or tire sidewall marking could be easily erased and damaged. In comparison, RFID tire tags present significant advantages in tire lifecycle management. As the main drafter of RFID tire tag standards in China and worldwide, Lanfei Dong will explain different scenarios demonstrating how RFID tire tags facilitate tire lifecycle management and contribute to the future of the smart tire.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Tire-road contact condition measurements by an intelligent tire
Arto Niskanen, doctoral student, Aalto University, FINLAND
Intelligent tires have been studied for decades. It has been shown that the different tire sensor technologies could provide vital information, especially for autonomous cars. In addition, more expensive and complex systems could be utilised in road monitoring applications. In this presentation, an intelligent tire equipped with an accelerometer is used to study the effect of tire-road contact conditions on measured accelerations on the tire inner liner.

11:25 - Smart Tire product development
Mike Sanislo, vice president, RFID systems, Computype, USA
The Smart Tire concept provides tire manufacturers with new opportunities to offer premium products differentiated by intelligence and sensors built directly into the tire, communicating data wirelessly through radio frequency identification (RFID). The speaker will provide an overview of a customised tire RFID product development process to include: the value proposition – proposed benefits in the plant and in the retail environment; simulation through finite elements modelling (FEM); prototype development, testing calibration of the FEM model; creating and executing a manufacturing plant pilot with commercial tires; commercialisation and launch; protection of intellectual property.

11:50 - Decoupling the tire-vehicle system through frequency-based dynamic substructuring
Matthew Clontz, graduate assistant, Center for Tire Research (CenTiRe), USA
One way to analyse the interaction of the tire and vehicle is through dynamic substructuring in the frequency domain. Dynamic substructuring refers to a class of techniques in which individual components (tire, suspension, etc.) are treated as 'substructures'. In the frequency domain, the frequency response functions (FRFs) of these substructures can then be either coupled together or decoupled from the assembled system. In the present work, these dynamic substructuring techniques are applied to decouple the tire substructure from an assembled quarter-car test rig.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 3

Thursday 16 February

09:00 - 12:40 - S2 - Tire and vehicle modelling and the comparison with real tire test data
Europa 1 & 2 (Pink)

Moderator
Prof Saied Taheri, professor and director, Virginia Tech, USA

09:00 - The latest developments in tire modelling at Jaguar Land Rover
Jan Prins, technical specialist, Jaguar Land Rover, UK
Mateo Gladstone, specialist engineer tire CAE & modelling, Jaguar Land Rover, UK
An overview of progress made with regard to tire modelling at Jaguar Land Rover, as well as plans for the future.

09:25 - Effects of temperature, roughness and wear on real-time MF modelling
Dr Flavio Farroni, CEO of MegaRide - applied vehicle research, University of Naples Federico II, ITALY
The physical modelling of tire-road interaction phenomena and the employment of advanced simulation tools developed by VDU research group and its spin-off, MegaRide, enable calculation of tire temperature local distribution and the adhesive and hysteretic components of friction. The cooperation between these instruments allows prediction of the modifications that a reduced tread thickness and a decreased strain energy loss cause to the overall vehicle performance. Latest developments in the field highlight the effects of the cited phenomena on the parameters of Pacejka's formulations, increasing the level of reliability of the simulations performed by real-time driving simulators.

09:50 - Modelling tire friction for passenger cars, trucks and aircraft
Dr Matthias Wangenheim, assistant director, Leibniz Universität Hannover, GERMANY
We present an FEA-based multiscale approach to predict tire friction on different dry and wet surfaces. The parameter range covered by our approach includes everything from passenger car tires in low-performance conditions up to aircraft landings with high speed and high loads. Model inputs are a surface description of the asphalt or concrete track, which is separated into different length scales, and viscoelastic material data in the form of a Prony series. Simulation results are coefficient of friction and real contact area. Model validation is shown by comparison with friction measurements with PC and aircraft tires.

10:15 - Tire strain measurement system using piezoelectric elements
Ammar Kubba, doctoral researcher, University of Birmingham, UK
Using piezoelectric transducers to measure interlayer tire strain is a promising technology providing it is responsive at 10s of kHz sampling rate range, which is essential to study tire behaviour under different loading and driving conditions, and to calculate tire strain by utilising mathematical integration. These strain values can be used to validate FE tire models. Tire driving conditions can be found from the tire strain measurements by positioning the piezoelectric sensors at different locations across the interlayer tire cross-section, such as measuring longitudinal strain, to find tracking and braking forces, and lateral strain to determine slip angles.

10:40 - Modelling the interaction between off-road tires and deformable terrains
Chrysostomos Bekakos, PhD student, Loughborough University, UK
A new modelling technique for the development of accurate detailed tire structures is being proposed. The interaction of a P235/75R17 with various terrains was investigated both numerically and analytically, and it has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on a deformable terrain. It is shown that the dynamic response of the rolling tire and its interaction with the deformable terrain is inherently complex and depends on many parameters, whereas it is proven that the overall performance of the off-road tires depends on significantly different parameters compared with the on-road tires.

11:05 - 11:25 - Break

11:25 - Parameters influencing the cornering stiffness and moments of radial tires
Dr Abdul Waheed Awan, lecturer, Staffordshire University, UK
Tire lateral forces and moments are important parameters in responsive vehicle handling. This depends on many factors including tire type and size, speed, vertical load, road condition, tire design parameters and inflation pressure. In this particular study, 3D parametric analysis is conducted on radial type tire 225/55 R17 to analyse the effect of inflation pressure, speed, tire load and series of design parameters on the lateral forces and moments of a tire. Results are discussed in terms of lateral forces and moments vs side slip angle for a range of design parameters and operating conditions.

11:50 - Measuring tire thermal states and their effect on tire performance
Henning Olsson, director, R&D, Calspan Corporation, USA
The effects of tire temperature on tire performance have been evaluated using novel measurement technologies developed at Calspan’s Tire Research Facility. By combining a multitude of thermal measurements, a holistic view of the thermal state of a tire can be generated. Different thermal states have been correlated to a tire’s static and dynamic force and moment characteristics. The results provide insight into how tire testing and tire modelling results and accuracy are affected. The method has also shown promising results in investigating the effect tire design and materials have on overall tire performance.

12:15 - Influence of road characteristics on different dynamic tire model simulations
Tobias Winkler, research assistant, Institute for Automotive Engineering (IKA), GERMANY
This investigation focuses on different road definitions, which were used to identify the influence of tire model behaviour on dynamic simulations. Therefore two different tire simulation models are compared to evaluate the adaptation of test rig tire characteristics to real road surfaces in simulation environments. Road curvature as well as road roughness and friction play a key role in this investigation. Texture measurements of road profile samples help define new simulation roads with higher accuracy.

12:40 - 14:00 - Lunch

*This Programme may be subject to change.


Day 3

Thursday 16 February

09:00 - 12:15 - S3 - The measurement of tire compound performance and the development of prediction theories
Rom (Green)

Moderator
Prof Manfred Klueppel, head of department, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie, GERMANY

09:00 - Modelling the stress-strain response of filler reinforced elastomers
Prof Manfred Klueppel, head of department, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie, GERMANY
It will be demonstrated that several aspects of linear and non-linear viscoelasticity of filled rubbers can be traced back to the specific rate and temperature-dependent properties of filler-filler bonds consisting of glassy-like polymer bridges. They are quite stiff and transmit the stress under deformation of the filler network. The pronounced non-linear behaviour of filled elastomers is shown to be related to the rupture of glassy-like polymer bridges, which deform under strain and break if a critical strain is exceeded. The rupture mechanism is described analytically in the frame of a microstructure-based model of rubber reinforcement, denoted dynamic flocculation.

09:25 - Productive mechanical testing solutions for more accurate tire performance prediction
Hugues Baurier, international sales manager, Metravib, FRANCE
The tire industry demands reliable mechanical testing methods that allow characterisation of rubber for predicting the key performance of tires. DMA is a major testing technique to obtain key data leading to prediction of rolling resistance and wet grip, and is also used to characterise frequency dependence, Payne and Mullins effects and heat buildup. Main tests are performed specimen by specimen, most at controlled temperature over quite a large temperature domain, which represents a huge consumption of operator and testing time. This presentation will introduce a brand-new concept that meets the expectations of the tire industry in terms of productivity and data accuracy.

09:50 - Determination of filler morphology through optical imaging and artificial intelligence
Paul Roossin, science director, Nanotronics, USA
A complex SBR tire tread compound that uses a combination of fillers has generally been designed, and filler networks and morphologies classified in microscopy research labs or through integral physical testing. Advanced computational methods for achieving superior detection of sub-micron features, distinguishing silica, carbon black, CNT and other fillers, are explored.

10:15 - Characterisation of processing oils in tires using IR technique
Marzieh Rouhi, manager of laboratory, Barez Industrial Group, IRAN
Extender oils are used predominantly in the tire industry. Therefore, understanding the type and amount of the oils in tires made by prominent tire factories can help us produce great products, just like it does in reverse engineering. In the first step of this study, we used an FT-IR method for conventional oils used in the tire industry and made standard spectra, then extracted the tread of a tire using Soxhlet apparatus by acetone. After that, the yielded extract was analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Characteristic peaks for aromatic oil are at 746 and 1,590cm-1.

10:40 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - Sibur tire rubbers
Sergei Bagriashov, head of R&D department, Sibur, RUSSIA
The presentation will review the Sibur rubbers portfolio for the tire industry from a tire key properties prediction point of view. Results of new rubbers development will also be discussed.

11:25 - Novel carbon blacks for upgrades in abrasion and rolling resistance
Dr Hauke Westenberg, manager - compounding rubber, Orion Engineered Carbons GmbH, GERMANY
Durability and low fuel consumption are key development targets when designing new rubber compounds for the tire market. Orion Engineered Carbons is offering a powerful toolbox to achieve these goals. Due to its very low specific surface area and balanced structure, carbon black significantly contributes to a reduction of hysteresis in carcass compounds and in the base compound. Furthermore, hard blacks with a specific narrow aggregate size distribution help to increase the lifetime of tires because the population of active particles is enhanced. However, rolling resistance indicators remain on the same level.

11:50 - Investigations of fracture mechanics for reinforced elastomers considering inelastic material behaviour
Mohammed El Yaagoubi, research associate, Deutsches Institut für Kautschuktechnologie eV, GERMANY
The service life of tires and other elastomer articles designed for dynamic loading often depends on the crack propagation as an intrinsic material property. Such compounds generally show complex mechanical behaviour including energy dissipation, residual strain, residual stress and material softening. The fracture mechanical description for such materials is complex and cannot be reproduced by hyperelastic material models. Here, the inelastic phenomenological material model MORPH is used, together with the J-integral, tearing energy and energy release rate as fracture criteria. The results of these investigations are correlated to the stress softening near the crack tip of a cracked sample.

12:15 - 14:00 - Lunch

*This Programme may be subject to change.

 

 


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14, 15, 16
FEBRUARY 2017

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HALL 2

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Tuesday 14th Feb 10:00 - 17:00hrs
Wednesday 15th Feb 10:00 - 17:00hrs
Thursday 16th Feb 10:00 - 15:00hrs
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Future show dates:

Tire Technology Expo 2018
Dates: 20-22 February 2018
Location: Halls 19/20/21, Hannover, Germany

Future show dates:

Tire Technology Expo 2019
Dates: 12-14 February 2019
Location: Halls 19/20/21, Hannover, Germany